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Circulation and gas exchange Cheat Sheet by

circulation and gas exchange intro bio 2

General properties of circul­atory systems

a circ system has:
-circu­latory fluid
-set of interc­onn­ection vessels
-muscular pump(s), the heart

3 chambered hearts of amphibians

The three chambered hearts of amph and nonavian reptiles are adaptive allowing variation in blood flow through the heart

blood

connective tissue
consists of cells suspended in liquid matrix called plasma
plasma ~55% cells~45%
 
plasma
water
cellular elements
leukoc­ytes, platelets, and erythr­ocytes

Gas exchange and respir­atory surfaces

gas exchange
supplies O2 for cellular respir­ation and disposes of CO2
occurs via diffusion
accomp­lished via large, moist resp surfaces between cells and medium
 
things like skin, gills, tracheae, lungs
 

Circul­atory Systems

open
closed

single and double circul­ation

single
 
fluid leaving heart travels to respir. organs and organ system before returning to heart
double
 
two different circuits
 
pulmonary: lung capill­aries
 
system­ic:body capill­aries

parts of heart/circ system

arteries
carry blood AWAY from heart to pulmonary (deoxy­gen­ated) & systemic circuits (oxyge­nated)
veins
carry blood back to heart from pulmonary and systemic circuits
pulmonary circuit
pulmonary arteries
 
pulmonary veins
systemic circuit
aorta
 
superior and inferior vena cava

ventil­ation

breathing
process that ventilates the lungs; alternate inhalation and exhalation of air
 
mechanisms vary across taxa
 

Closed Circul­atory Systems

cardio­vas­cular system
circul­atory fluid: blood
interc­onn­ected vessels:
arteries, arteri­oles, capill­aries, venules, veins
pump: heart
gas exchange mechanism
gills/­lungs
blood has to get to:
respir­atory tissue
pulmonary circuit
organ systems
systemic circuit

respir­atory pigments

proteins that transport oxygen; greatly increase the amount of O2 that blood can carry
 
hemogl­obin, myoglobin, hemocyanin
hemoglobin
resp. pigment w/ high affinity for O2
Bohr shift:
co2 decreases pH and the affinity of hemoglobin for O2
hemoglobin can bind co2 but most is transp­orted in plasma

Disorders of circ system

>50% of deaths in US
cardio­vas­cular disease
disorder of heart and or blood vessels
athero­scl­erosis:
buildup of plaques in arteries
heart attack
blockage of 1 or more coronary arteries
stroke
rupture or blockage of arteries to brain
hypert­ension
high BP, increases risk of plaque buildup and heart attack
 

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