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Unit 7 chp 23 notes Cheat Sheet by

unit 7 chapter 23 notes

FOSSIL RECORD DOCUMENTS LIFE'S HISTORY

-Mac­roe­vol­ution
the broad pattern of evolution above the species level
-example: emergence of terres­trial verteb­rates

DIVERSITY OF LIFE

major periods in earth's history END with mass extinc­tions and new ones BEGIN with adaptive radiat­ions!
- mass extinc­tions can alter ecological commun­ities

HETERO­CHRONY

evolut­ionary change in the rate or timing of develo­pmental events

CHANGES IN GENE REGULATION

changes in morphology can also occur when there is a change in the sequence of develo­pmental genes
exam­ple: stickl­eback fish
the gene is the same, but is expressed differ­ently in the 2 groups of fish
 

FOSSILS

provides glimpses of evolution over billions of years

FIRST LIFE ON EARTH

-ear­ly: earth's sols inhabi­tants were prokar­yotic cells at least 3.5 billion years ago
-they transf­ormed life on our planet!

ADAPTIVE RADIATION

-periods of evolut­ionary change in which groups of organisms form many new species whose adapta­tions allow them to fill different niches in their enviro­nment
diversity of life fueled by adaptive radiation

HOMEOTIC GENES

- one type hox genes provide positional inform­ation in an animal embryo
-small changes in regulatory sequences of particular genes can lead to major changes in body form

LAST WORDS...

evolution is the result of the intera­ctions between organisms and their current enviro­nments
 

GEOLOGICAL CLOCKS

help to give us a perspe­ctive when discussing events in the contexts of geological record

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

did not evolve until another 2 billions years of evolution of prokar­yotes
1.5 billion years ago

EFFECTS OF DEVELO­PMENTAL GENES

evo-­devo: research at the interface between evolut­ionary biology and develo­pmental biology
-devlo­pmental genes guide the formation of the body from to adult. Even a small change in rate, timing, and spatial pattern can produce major morpho­logical differ­ences

EVOLUTION IS NOT GOAL ORIENTED

an evolut­ionary trend does not mean that evolution is goal-o­riented
surviving species do not represent the peak of perfec­tion. there is compromise and random chance involved as well
 

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