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AP BIO- UNIT 1: CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE Cheat Sheet by

CHAPTER 2 ap bio unit 1

DEFINTIONS

MATT­ER: anything that takes up space and has mass... it is made up of elements!!
ELEM­ENT: substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions
COMPOU­ND: substance that consists of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio

SHAPE AND FUNCTION

- molecular function related to its shape
-shape is determined by bond angles
- shape is used in how molecules recognize and relate to each other
- INDUCED FIT
lock and key model
- allows for molecular mimics

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

- the making & breaking of bonds that leads to changes in the compos­ition of matter
- chemical reactions change reactants into products while conserving matter
- most are reversible
EXAM­PLE
2H2 + O2= 2H20
reactants= products
 

EMERGENT PROPERTIES

* sodium (Na) is a metal
* chlorine (Cl) is a poisonous gas
* combined= NaCl= table salt

CHEMICAL BONDING

IONIC BONDS
- transfer of electrons
-forms + and - ions
-weak bond formed because of their opposite charges
- ionic compounds are called salts
- enviro­nment affects the strength of ionic bonds

CHEMICAL BONDING

HYDROGEN BONDS
- weak chemical bond
-partially +H atom in water molecule is attracted to the partially -O in another
- can occur wherever an -OH exists in a larger molecule

EQUILI­BRIUM

- chemical equili­brium is reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are EQUAL
5 to 5 or 10 to 10
 

LIFE NEEDED ELEMENTS

CHNOPS
96% = CHON
4%= SPKCa

CHEMICAL BONDING

COVALENT BONDS
- sharing electrons
-strong bond
= both atoms holding onto electrons
- forms molecules
-double covalent bonds
2 atoms can share more than one pair of electrons
 
"­double and triple bonds"

POLAR COVALENT BONDS

- electrons are not shared equally
- electr­one­gat­ivity
-oxygen is one of the most electr­one­gative of the 92 elements

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