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AP BIO- Unit 7 Chp 20 Cheat Sheet by

ap bio unit 7 chp 20 notes

PHYLOGENY

the evolut­ionary history of a species or groups of species

SYSTEM­ATICS

an approach to classi­fying organisms and determ­ining their evolut­ionary relati­onships

ANALOGY

similarity due to convergent evolution rather than to a shared ancestry

EVALUATING MOLECULAR HOMOLOGIES

in this example 11 / 12 original bases have NOT changed since the species diverged
1.) homologous DNA sequences are identical between the 2 species
2.) deletion and insertion mutations shift and matching sequences
3.) those areas that are shaded in orange no longer match because of the mutations
4.) the matching regions are realigned using a computer program that puts gaps in sequence 1
 

TAXONOMY

- common names can be confusing
- scientific name=
binomial nomenc­lature
 
* genus and species

HOMOLOGY

phenotypic and genetic simila­rities due to shared ancestry are called homologies

CLADISTICS

- cladistics uses common descent as the primary criteria to classify organisms
- due to descent with modifi­cation, organisms share some, but NOT ALL charac­ter­istics with their ancestors
 

PHYLOG­ENETIC TREE

- connect classi­fic­ation and phylogeny
- represents a hypothesis about evolut­ionary relati­onships

PHYLOG­ENIES

- phylog­enies are inferred from both:
-molecular data
*gene sequences
 
*protein sequences
-morpho­logical features
* presence or absence of fins
 
*number of legs
 
*struc­tures of the organism

PARSIMONY

-maximum parsimony
simplest explan­ation that is consistent with the facts

LIKELIHOOD

-maximum likelihood
a tree can be found that most likely reflects the sequence of events
 

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