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AP BIO- Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Cheat Sheet by

Chemistry of Life Test Review

INQUIRY ABOUT LIFE

*an organisms adapta­tions to its enviro­nment are the result of evolution
*EXA­MPLE :a beach mouses light dapple fur allows the mouse to blend into its surrou­ndings
*evolution is the process of change that has resulted in the astounding array of organisms found on earth
<-- fundam­ental principle of biology
BIOL­OGY is the scientific study of LIFE

DNA - THE GENETIC MATERIAL

* a DNA molecule holds hundreds or thousands of genes, each a stretch of DNA along the chromosome
Genes: the units of inheri­tances that transmit inform­ation from parent to parent
* as cells grow and divide, the genetic inform­ation encoded by DNA directs their develo­pment
* a DNA molecule is made of 2 long strands arranged in a double helix
* each link of a chain is one of 4 kinds of chemical building blocks­-­nuc­leo­tid­es: "­A­,T,­C,G­"
* DNA provides blueprints for making proteins, the major players in building and maintains a cell
* genes control protein production indirectly using RNA as an interm­ediary
*Gene expres­sion: the process of converting inform­ation from a gene to its cellular product
 

EMERGENT PROPERTIES

* result from the arrang­ement and intera­ction of parts within a system
*they charac­terize non biological entities as well
EXAM­PLE: a functi­oning bike emerges only when all of the needed parts connect in the right way
* biologists today complement reduct­ionism with systems biology, the explor­ation of a biological system by analyzing the intera­ctions among its parts

GENOMICS: LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS OF DNA SEQUENCES

* an organisms genome is its entire set of genetic inform­ation
* geno­mics: the study of sets of genes within and between species
* prot­eom­ics refers to the study of sets of proteins and their properties
* the entire set of proteins expressed by a cell, tissue of organism is called prot­eome
* "­hig­h-t­hro­ugh­put­" technology refers to tools that can analyze biological samples very rapidly
* bioi­nfo­rma­tics is the use of comput­ational tools to store, organize and analyze the huge volume of data

LEVELS OF HIERARCHY

1.) ORGANELLES
2.) CELLS
3.) TISSUES
4.) ORGANS
5.) ORGAN SYSTEMS
6.) ORGANISMS, POPULA­TIONS AND COMMUN­ITIES
7.) ECOSYSTEMS
8.) BIOSPHERE
 

STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

* at each level of the biological hierarchy we find a correl­ation between structure and function
EUKA­RYOTIC CELLS
PROK­ARYOTIC CELLS
* analyzing a biological structure can give clues about what it does and how it works
*contain membrane enclosing organelles including DNA-co­nta­ining nucleus
* lack a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles and are generally smaller than eukaryotes
- the cell is the smallest unit of life that can perform all activities required for life
* some organelles like chloro­plasts are limited only to certain cell types; those that carry out photos­ynt­hesis

ENERGY AND MATTER

* energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat
* chemical elements remain within an ecosystem, where they are used then recycled

EVOLUTION

the concept that the organisms living today are modified descents of common ancestors

NATURAL SELECTION

mechanism for evolution called natural selection because the "­natural enviro­nme­nt" selects for certain traits among those in population
 

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