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Vertebrates Cheat Sheet by

vertebrates into bio 2

Phylum Chordata

Lancelets
Cephal­och­ordata
Tunicates
Urocho­rdata

Chondr­ich­thyans

jawed cartil­aginous fishes
sharks and stingrays

Gnatho­stomes

verteb­rates with a jaw
like sharks!

tetrapods

sarcop­ter­ygians with limbs
Need:
4 limbs with digits
neck for seperate movement of head
fusion of pelvic girdle to backbone
ears for airborne sounds

Dinosauria

Ornith­ischia
bird hipped, herbivores
Saurischia
lizard hipped
 
herbiv­ores- sauropods
 
carniv­ores- theropods
 
birds
Aves
birds
 
forelimbs into wings
 
kerati­nized feathers
 
hollow skeletons
 
no teeth
 

Craniates

chordates with a head
Have:
skull, brain, eyes and other sense organs, high metabolism
Example:
Hagfishes
Myxini

Reptiles

derived charac­ters:
scales for waterproof
shelled eggs on land
lepido­saurs
lizards and snakes
archosaurs
crocod­ill­ians, dinos, bird, turtles
 

Verteb­rates

craniates with a backbone
have vertebrae
Example:
Lampreys
petrom­yzo­ntida

Osteic­hthyans

gnatho­stomes with bony endosk­eletons
bony fishes!!
actino­pte­rygii
ray-finned fishes
yellowfin tuna, seahorse

Sarcop­terygii

lobe-f­inned fishes
Lungfish

Tikt­aalik

an ancient sarcop­ter­ygian and tetrapod

Amphibians

simple eggs with the embryo surrounded by a jelly coat
amniotes
tetrapods with amniotic eggs

Mammalia

mammals
amniotes with hair
derived charac­ters:
mammary glands
hair
high metabolic rate
endothermy
large brain
different teeth
main groups
Monotremes
platypus, BASAL MAMMAL TAXA, still lay eggs
Marsupials
dont lay eggs, embryo connected to placenta then to pouch.. kangaroos!
Eutherians
most mammals
 

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