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Mastering biology 1,3,4,5

Scientific Method

Steps of the Scientific Method
 
1) Observ­ation
 
2) Question
 
3) Hypothesis
 
4) Prediction
 
5) Experiment
 
6) Record and Analyze data

Types of Variab­les

Cont­rolled Variable
The variable that stays constant throughout the experiment
Inde­pendent Variable
The variable that you are changing ( I-vary)
Dependent Variable
The variable that responds to the changes from the indepe­ndent variable
Negative Control Variable
A control variable that does not result in any changes
Positive Control Variable
A control variable that results in a change

Single Blind v.s Double Blind Experiment

Sing­le-­Blind
When the participants of the experiment do not know which group they are in
Doub­le-­Blind
When both the researcher and the participants do not know which group they are in
Why is this import­ant?
It helps eliminate bias in an experiment and help obtain honest results

Prokar­yotic Cell Structure

Eukaryotic Cell Structure

Plant Cell Structure

Phosph­olipids

A phosph­olipid has 2 parts:
1) Polar region (hydrophilic)
2) Non-­polar (hydr­oph­obic)
Phosph­olipids form a bilayer in the membrane (phos­pho­lipid bilayer)

Passive transport

-> requires no energy
-> Sponta­neous movement of a substance across a membrane from an area high concen­tra­tion to an area of low concen­tra­tion (spre­ading out)
ex: a ball rolls down a hill
-> Non-polar substances can dissolve through the non-polar lipid bilayer.
-> (sex hormones, pesticides)
-> Small, unchanged molecules: O2 & the CO2

Active transport

-> REQUIRES AN INPUT OF ENERGY
-> The movement of a substance across a membrane from an area of low concen­tration to an area of high concentration
-> LOWER CONCEN­TRATION TO HIGHER CONCEN­TRATION
-> ex: we must work to roll the ball back uphill

Active transport v.s Passive transport

Active
Pass­ive
Molecules need energy to move across the membrane
ex: requires transport proteins
Molecules move sponta­neously (no imput of energy)
ex: Diffusion & Osmoisis

What is excluded from passing the membrane?

Ions (Ca2+, H+, Na+, Cl-)
-> even though they are small, their charges cause them to be repelled by the hydrophobic tails of te membrane
Large polar molecu­les
(gl­uclose & amino acids) cannot pass the hydrop­hilic tails of the membrane
Transport membra­nes
help these molecules pass through the lipid bilayer
-> Faci­litated Diffus­ion: is when the passive movement of a substance with the help of membrane transport proteins: channels
carriers

Hydrop­hilic v.s Hydrop­hobic

Hydrop­hilic
Hydrop­hobic
Attracts Water Molecules
Repels Water Molecules

What is the monomer unit of a protein?

Answer: Amino Acids

What is the main component of the plasma membrane?

Membrane

What charateristic makes a membrane semi-permeable
Substances move in & out of the cell through proteins or btwn phospholipids

Charac­ter­istics of All Living things

1) Are made up of 1 or more cells
2) Can reproduce using DNA
3) Obtain energy from the enviro­nment around them
4) Able to grow & develop
5) able to evolve as a group

Prokar­yotic v.s Eukaryotic

Prok­ary­oti­c(U­nic­ell­ular)
The entire organism is made up of one cell
This cell carries out all the functions for survival
ex: Bacteria & Archea
Euka­ryo­tic­(Mu­lti­cel­lua­lr)
Are composed of many specia­lized cells working together
ex: small plants and animals

Prokar­yotic v.s Eukaryotic

DNA v.s RNA

DNA
-> deoxyr­ibosose nucleic acid
-> gene carry an ATCG code
-> are the blueprint for protein molecules
RNA
-> ribonu­cleic acid
-> acts as a messenger carrying out orders from the DNA
-> controls synthesis of protein
-> The genetic code is AGCT

DNA v.s RNA

Macrom­ole­cules comparison

Size Ranges of Biological Structure

Cell Struct­ures; to real life ex

Nucleus = Town Hall ( controls the cell)
Golgi = USPS/ UPS (packages and delivers
ER= Factories (make lipids/ Proteins
Ribosomes = Factory workers (makes lipids proteins)
Chloroplast= Solar Panel ( Captures light)
Mitochondria = Power House ( Convert Energy)
Lysosomes = break down bacteria and worn out (sanitation)
Vacuoles = Break down bacteria etc.and store energy (sanitation)
Cell membrane = to regulate what gets in and out of the cell (Bouncer )
Cytoskeleton = structures and movement of chromosomes (infrastructure of town/ highway)
Cytoplasm = holds all the organelles together & cellular respiration (air)
Vesicles = storage and move things around move proteins out of the cell ( mailman/ mail truck)

Diffusion

-> Diffusion= substances moving spontaneously
-> Diffusion stops when the substance is equally distributed -Equilibrium
-> There is no net movement of molecules, even though the molecules are still moving
-> They are moving in a space at the same rate as they are leaving the space
What factors can affect the rate of diffusion?
-> Temp­era­tur­e­(h­eat­/co­ld): Heat causes particles to move faster
Cold slows down the movement of particles
-> Size of partic­les: Small molecules will move faster than the large ones

Osmosis

-> is the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane
-> Through polar, water molecules are small enough to weave through the lipid bilayer
-> If a large amount of water is needed, the movement is done through a protein channel -Aquaporin
-> The diffusion of water across the membrane is PASSIVE
-> NO INPUT OF ENERGY IS REQUIRED
-> Water moves from an area of high concen­tration to an area of low concentreation
-> Water moves from areas of low solute (salt­,su­gar) to high solute

Solution types

Isotonic = having the same/equal
Hypoto­nic = having a lower concen­tration of solute than the other solution{
Hypert­onic = having higher osmotic pressure than the comparison solution

Solution differ­ences

Intrac­ellular v.s Extrac­ellular

Intr­ace­llu­lar: located Inside of the cell
Extracellular: located outside of the cell

Producers v.s Consumers

Prod­ucer
-> Plants obtain energy from the non-living part of the environment
-> Autotrophs = Producers
Cons­umer
-> Animals obtain energy from the living part of the environment
Hetrotrophs =Consumers

Linnean Hierarchy of Classi­fic­ation

8 category system
Top to bottom = Least specific to most
Bottom to the top = Most specific to least

Biological Organi­zation

4 Biological Molecules

1) Proteins
2) Lipids
3) Carboh­ydr­ates
4) Nucleic Acids

Monomer v.s Polymer

Monomer
-> is any molecule that contains atleast 1 C-H bond
->Small Building Blocks
Poly­mer
-> are small organic molecules that are used as repeating links together via covalent bonds to form a macrom­olecule (polymers)

Dehydr­ation Reaction v.s Hydrolysis Reaction

Dehydr­ation Reaction
-> connects a monomer to another monomer or a polymer
-> In a dehydration reaction the 2 reactants(monomer/polymer) contributes a part of the water molecule released in the reaction
-> one contributes the -OH(hydroxyl group) & the other H (Hydrogen)
-> Continuous reaction
Hydrol­ysis
-> breaks down polymers into monomers
The bond btwn the monomers attaching to one monomer and the hydroxyl attaching to the other monomer

The Order of Making Protein

DNA -> RNA -> Protein

The Plasma Membrane

-> Forms the external boundary of all types of cells
-> Seperates the inside contents of the cell from the outside
-> Controls commun­ication and exchange of some materials
-> Is Sele­ctively Permeable
the membrane regulates the passage of materials
-> Membrane allows some substances to pass through, more easily than others.
-> Some molecules can enter and exit the cell freely
Some molecules can pass under some circumstances
-> Others have some trouble
Functions of a Plasma Membrane:
-> They keep toxic substances out of the cell
-> They contain receptors and channels that allow molecules such as ions, nutrients, waste, and metabolic product
-> Regulates the transport of substances in and out of the cell
-> Protects the cell by acting as a barrier

Cells

4 Macromolecules Functions & Examples

Macromolecules
Building Blocks
Functions
Examples
Lipids
Fatty acids & glycerol
to provide cells with long-term energy & make-up biological membranes
Fats, Phospholipids, waxes, oils, grease, steroids
Nucleic acids
Nucleo­tides
to store and pass on genetic info
DNA & RNA
Carboh­ydr­ates
Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
to provide cells with short term energy & source of fiber
Glucose, Sucrose, Starch, Cellulose, Chtin
Proteins
Amino Acids
to provide cell structure, send chemical signals, speed up chemical reactions, & more
Keratain(found in hair & nails), Hormones, Enzymes, Antibodies

key role in cell communication

Answer: The plasma membrane plays a key role in communication btwn cells & their environment

Active Transport & Channels

Ion Channels
Intergral pores that allow specific ions to get in/out of the cell
Tran­spo­rters
Integral proteins that selectively move a polar substance/ion to one side of the membrane
Rece­ptors
Integral proteins that serve as recogn­ition sites. Each binds to a specific type of molecule
Ligand
A specific molecule that binds to a receptor
Enzymes
Intergral proteins that catalyze specific chemical reactions at the cell surface
Link­ers
Intergral proteins that hold down proteins in the plasma membrane. Helps form structure of cells and link cells together

Signal Transd­uction Pathway

A series of steps linking a mechanical/chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response

Local v.s Long Distance(animal cells)

Local
Both
Long
 
target only specific target cells recognize & respond to a given signal molecule
Panacrine Signaling
A secreting cell acts on nearby target cells by discharging molecules of a local regulator into extracellular fluid
Synaptic Signal­ing
A nerve cell releases nuerot­ran­smitter molecules into a synapse stimul­ating the target cell
  
Hormonal Signaling
Specialized endocrine cells secrete hormones into body fluids, often blood Hormones may reach virtually all body cells

Regulators

Local Regulators: a secreted molecule that influences cells near where it was secreted
G-protein-coupled receptors: a signal receptor protein that responds to the binding of a signal molecule by activating a G-protein
Ion Channel receptors: a ligand-gated ion channel is a type of membrane receptor containing a region that can act as a "gate" when the receptor changes shape

mono v.s di v.s poly (sacch­arides)

Amino Acid Monomers

-> are organic molecules with carboxyl and an amino acid group
-> at the center of the small molecules is the carbon atom called " Alpha Carbon­"
-> surrounded by amino group, carboxyl group, a hydrogen group with a "­-­R­" group

Amino Acid Structure

20 amino acids

Protein Structure & Function

-> A functional protein consists of 1 or more polype­ptides
3 Levels of Structure:
1) Primary Structure
2) Secondary Structure
3) Teritary Structure
4) Quaternary Structure
Primary Struct­ure: is the proteins linear sequence
Secondary Struct­ure: is when polype­ptide chains coil or fold to the backbone of the polype­ptide interact and form bonds
Teri­tiary Struct­ure: happens through the intera­ctions of the amino acids. Determines the overall shape of the polypeptide
Quat­ernary Struct­ure: is when 2 or more polype­ptides combine (aggre­gate)

Endome­mbrane System

-> Nuclear Envelope
-> Endopl­asmic Reticulum
-> Golgi Body
-> Lysosomes
-> Plasma Membranes
-> Vacuoles

Plasma membrane

What macrom­olecule makes up the majority of the plasma membrane of cells?
A) Proteins
B) Carbohydrates
C) Lipids -->> Phos­pho­lip­ids
D) Nucleic Acids
 
Proteins and carboh­ydrates also compose the membrane

Amphip­athic

having both hydrophillic & hydrophobic parts

Concen­tration Gradient

oocurs when the concentration of particle in one area than another.s is higher

Permeable

allowing cells/ions to pass through

Turgid

Swollen or congested

Solution vocab

Solvent: able to dissolve other solutions
Solution: a homogenous (balanced) mixture of solvent or solute molecules
Solute: is a substance that can be dissolved by a solvent to create a solution

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