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BIO 130 Exam 2 Cheat Sheet by

Biology Exam 2 Review Sheet

How is Energy defined?

Energy is something you need to do work

Law of Thermo­dyn­amics

1st Law of Thermo­dyn­amics
Energy can be transf­erred or transf­ormed but neither created nor destroyed
2nd Law of Thermo­dyn­amic
Each energy transfer or transf­orm­ation increases the disorder

ATP

What is ATP?
Adenosine Tripho­sphate
What kind of molecule is ATP?
ATP is an energy storing molecule
Called the Cell's Energy Currency
Cells get energy from ATP
What is ATP made of ?
ATP is made out of adenine (nitogen base), ribose (sugar), and phosphate groups
What happens when the bond breaks to the ATP?
ATP loses 1 phosphate group
When it loses a phosphate group it turns into adenosine "­Di" phosphate

Stages of Cellular Respir­ation

1st- Glycol­osis
-> Location: Cytoplasm
Splitting sugars in cytoplasm energy investment phase -> 2 ATP molecules combine with glucose molecule
2nd- Oxidat­ion
-> Locati­on:­Inner membrane and inner membrane space of the mitochondria
Pyruvates move into the mitoch­ondria through oxidation. pyruvates brolen into water
3rd- Krebs Cycle
-> Locati­on:­Matrix For every glucose, the cycle repeats 2x. The breakdown of pyruvic molecules --> carbon dioxide releases 2 ATPs in this stage
4th -Electron Transport Chain
-> Location: Inner membrane
Membrane bound carriers that transport electrons, produces 32 ATP's

Where does it occur?

Phot­osy­nth­esis
Chloro­plast
Cellular Respir­ation
Mitoch­ondria

ATP vs ADP

ATP
ADP
Aden­osine Tripho­sphate
Aden­osine Diphos­phate
ATP is a nucleotide found in cells
ADP is a nucleotide which has a low amount of energy
Made of 1 adenine, 1 ribose, and 3 phosph­ates
Made out of 1 adenine, 1 ribose, and 2 phosph­ates
 
ADP is formed when ATP LOSES a phosph­ate

Anabolic or Catabolic Pathway

Phot­osy­nth­esis
Photosynthesis is an Anabolic Pathway because light energy from the sun is converted into glucose
Cellular Respir­ation
Cellular Respir­ation is Cata­bolic Pathway because organic molecules are broken down to release energy

Oxidation Reduction Reactions Vocab

Oxid­ation
A reaction that REMO­VES 1 or more electrons from a substance
Redu­ction
A reaction where electrons are GAINED by either removing oxygen, adding hydrogen, or the addition of electrons
Oxid­ized
When a molecule has LOST Electrons and that has increase its oxidation #
Redu­ced
When a molecule has GAINED electrons by losing an oxygen or gaining a hydrogen atom
Oxid­ati­on-­Red­uction Reaction
Any chemical change where 1 molecule LOSES electrons and the other molecule GAINS electrons
Redox Reaction
Any chemical change where 1 molecule becomes OXIDIZED loses electrons and the other molecule is REDUCED gains electrons
Oxid­izing Agent
The molecule that GAINS electrons in an oxidat­ion­-re­duction reaction and is reduced
Reducing Agent
The molecule that has a potential to reduce another molecule
Anode
Where Oxidation takes place
Cath­ode
Where Reduction takes place

How many chromo­somes do humans have?

46 or 23 pairs

Stages of The Cell Cycle

1st: Interp­hase
This is the 1st stage of the cell cycle and occurs before mitosis.
During this phase the cell GROWS makes a copy of it DNA (the chromo­somes are copied) and prepares to divide into 2 cells
The 2 structures that are being copied are cylinder shape and are called centrioles
2nd:Pr­oph­ase
This is the 1st phase of Mitosis
During this phase the cent­rioles start to move to the opposite ends of the cell The spindle fibers start to form a bridge to connect the cells
3rd:Me­tap­hase
This is the 2nd phase of Mitosis
During this phase, the chromo­somes all line up down the middle of the cell
(The nucleus has now disapp­eared)
4th: Anaphase
This is the 3rd phase of Mitosis
During this phase the chromo­somes pull apart from each other and move to the opposite sides of the cell
Thos process is caused by the split of the centromere of each chromo­somes. These chromo­somes have been pulled by spindle fibers, which has subseq­uently caused the cekk to stretch out
5th: Teloph­ase
This is the 4th and Final Stage of Mitosis
During this phase new nuclear membranes form
a new nuclear envelope has also formed and the spindle fibers have disapp­eared. There are now 2 new nuclei
6th: Cytoki­nesis
This is the Final Stage of the Cell Cycle
(This phase occurs with Telophase)
This phase results in the cell spliting into 2 identical daughter cells. The 2 daughter cells both contain the same chromosome set and about half the organelles of the parents
There are differ­ences in this phase of the animal cell & plant cells
Animal cells: The cell membranes squeezes together around the middle of the cell. The cytoplasm pinched into 2 cells. each daughter cell recieves about half the organelles of the parent cell
Plant Cells: A plant cell's rigid cell wall cannot squeeze together in the same way a cell membrane can
 

Potential Energy vs Kinetic Energy

Pote­ntial Energy
Energy an object has due to its position or structure
Kinetic Energy
Energy an object has due to its motion

Metabolism

Meta­bol­ism
All the chemical reactions in a cell
Cata­bol­ism
All the reactionns that break LARGE molecules into SMAL­LER ones
Energy is Tran­sfe­rred from food to a stored cellular form (downhill reacti­ons))
Anab­olism
All the reactions that build LARGE molecules from SMAL­LER ones
Energy is Requ­ired to build the molecule (uphill reactions)

Compet­itive Inhibition Vs Non

Comp­etitive Inhibi­tion
The inhibitor copies the substrate and competes for the activation site of the enzyme
Non-­Com­pet­itive Inhibi­tion
The inhibitor binds to another area on the enzyme, alters the shaoe of the enzyme and prevents the active site from functi­oning

How do Cells Regulate Enzymes?

Regu­lat­ion:
-> The regulation of an enzyme may help to regulate metabolism
-> Turns off the genes that regulate enzyme activity
Regulate the enzyme activity once it is made
Allo­steric Regula­tion
-> mimics non-co­mpe­titive inhibition
-> Enzyme function at one site is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule at another site.
2 Possible ways of Allosteric Inhibi­tor
1) Inhibitor binds to the allosteric site, blocks the active site and changes the shape of the entire enzyme
2) Inhibitor bind to the allosteric site and changes the shape of the active site

Cellular Respir­ation

What is the reaction (starting materials and products) for Cellular Respir­ati­on?
Glycolysis
Rea­cta­nts
Glucose
2 ATP molecules
2 NAD+
Glyc­oly­sis
Products
2 Pyruvic Acid
2 ATP
2 NADH
Citric Acid / Krebs Cycle
Reactants
2 Pyruvic Acid (produced by Glycol­ysis)
Citric Acid / Krebs Cycle
Products
2 ATP
4 CO2
NADH and FADH2
Electron Transport Chain
Reactants
Oxygen and Energy Carriers
(produced by Glycolysis and the Citric Cycle)
Electron Transport Chain
Products
32 ATP
Ligh­t-D­epe­ndent Reactions
Rea­cta­nts
Light
Water
Ligh­t-D­epe­ndent Reactions
Pro­duc­ts
ATP
NADPH
Oxygen
Calvin Cycle
Reactants
6 CO2
6 ATP
6 NADPH
Calvin Cycle
Products
Glucose

How is ATP Created?

Phot­osy­nth­esis
ATP is made in light-­dep­endent reactions through ATP synthase, chemio­smosis
Cellular Respir­ation
ATP is made in chemio­smoisis

Formulas

Balanced Chemical Photosynthesis
6 H2O + 6CO2 -- Sunlight-- C6 H12 O6 +6 O2
Balanced Chemical Cellular Respir­ation
6 O2+ C6 H12 O6--Su­nli­ght-- 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP Energy

The Cell Cycle & Mitosis Vocab

Here­dity
The passing of traits from parents to offspring
Gene
A segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes a specific trait
Allele
The different forms/­var­iations of a gene
Fert­ili­zat­ion
The process where the egg and sperm cell join to form an offspring
Chro­mos­ome
DNA condensed into a transp­ortable form after it has replic­ated; since DNA is replic­ated, each chromosome contains 2 identical copies
Chro­matin
Uncoiled strand of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones
Sister Chroma­tid
Identical copies of DNA attached to each other by the centromere
Homo­logous Chromo­somes
A pair of chromo­somes where 2 chromo­somes are the same sixe and shape and they contain the same genes with each parent contri­buting 1 chromosome in each pair
Cent­rom­ere
Area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

Mitosis vs Meiosis

Mitosis
1) Crossing Over
2) Pairing of Homologues
3) Number of Divisions
4) Number of Haploid Daughter Cells
5)Chromosome Number


1

Stays the same
Meiosis
1) Crossing Over
2) Pairing of Homologues
3) Number of Divisions
4) Number of Haploid Daughter Cells
5)Chromosome Number


2
4
1/2

Steps of Mitosis

Interphase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Cytokinesis
 

Free Energy

Free Energy
the amount of the systems energy that can do work when temper­ature and pressure are uniform throughout
Exer­gonic Reacti­ons
A Rele­ase of free energy and is Spontaneous
G is negative
Ende­rgonic Reaction
Abso­rbs free energy from its surrou­ndings and is Non-spontaneous
G is positive

Enzymes

Prop­erties of an Enzyme:
Recyclable
Are able to maintain their structures
Specific to a substrate
Lower Activation Energy
What type of macrom­ole­cules are enzymes?
Enzymes are prot­ein macrom­ole­cules that act as catalysts

...

Electron Transport Chain
-> 1st part of stage 3
-> Location: inner membrane
NADH and FADH2 are moved across the ETC to oxygen, the final electron acceptor. Proteins in ETC use energy from released electrons to shuttle H+ against the concen­tration gradient into the inner membrane space
Chem­osm­osis
-> Location: Inner membrane space, Inner membrane, Matrix
-> Energy from H+ concen­tration in inner membrane space drives H+ through ATP synthase, which activates catalytic sites that attach a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP

What is the purpose?

Phot­osy­nth­esis
To make food (Gluc­ose) for a Plant Cell
Cellular Respir­ation
To release usable energy to power a cell

What is needed?

Reactants for Photosynthesis
Light Energy
Carbon Dioxide (C02)
Water (H20)
Products for Photosynthesis
Glucose (C6 H12 O6)
Oxygen (O2)
Reactants for Cellular Respirations
Gluclose (C6 H12 O6)
Oxygen (O2)
Products for Photosynthesis
Usable Chemical Energy
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Water (H2O)

What is?

Substrate-level Phosphorylation
In this process a phosphate group from a substrate molecule directly to ADP, forming ATP
Oxid­ative Phosph­ory­lat­ion
Final Stage in cellular respir­ation which the energy stored in electron carrier molecules is used to generate ATP

Can Cellular Respir­ation aerobic or anaerobic?

Aerobic because it require oxygen

Fate of Pyruvate

Aerobic Condit­ions
Pyruvate -> acetyl-coA -> Citric Acid Cycle
Anarobic Conditions
Eukaryotic Cell
Pyruvate -> Lactat­e/L­actic Acid
Anarobic Conditions
Prokaryotic Cell
Pyruvate -> Acetal­dehyde -> Ethanol

Photos­ystems

Phot­osy­ste­ms:
An organized complex of chloro­phy­ll,­other pigments and proteins that rap light energy as exicted electrons
Plants have 2 linked photos­ystems in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts
Photosystem II passes an excited electron transport chain to Photos­ystem I to replace an exicted electron passed to NADPH. The electron lost from Photos­ystem II is replaced by the oxidation of water.

Photos­ynt­hesis & Cellular Respir­ation

How are Photos­ynt­hesis + Cellular Respir­ation related?
Photos­ynt­hesis removes CO2 from the atmosphere and Cellular Respir­ation puts it back. Photos­ynt­hesis releases oxygen into the atmosphere and Cellular Respir­ation uses that oxygen to release energy from food.

Mitosis vs Meiosis

Mito­sis
A process of Asexual Reprod­uct­ion where the cell divides into 2 producing a replica with identical number of chromo­somes in a haploid cell
Meiosis
A type of cellular respir­ation where the number of chromo­somes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromo­somes in a diploid cell
Function of Mitosis
Asexual Reprod­uction
Function of Meiosis
Sexual Reprod­uction
Mitosis occurs in:
All Organisms
Meiosis occurs in:
Humans, Animals, Plants, Fungi
Mitosis is Geneti­cally
Identical
Meiosis is Geneti­cally
Different (Genetic Variance)

Which phase of the cell cycle does DNA replicate?

Interphase
DNA replicates during interp­hase. This provides each new daughter cell with a complete nucleus

3 ways variab­ility is achieved

1) Crossing Over & Recombination
2) Indepe­ndent Segreg­ation of Homologous Chromosomes
3) Random Assort­ment

What is Sperma­tog­enesis?

Sper­mat­oge­nesis
The process when the semini­ferous tubules of the testes produce sperm cells
When does it occur?
Puberty
What does sperma­togonia do?
They divide contin­ously via mitosis unitl puberty all their daughter cells become sperma­togonia
 
It remains at the basal lamina to maintain the germ cell line

Steps of Meiosis

Interphase
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Telophase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Telophase II

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