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Animal form and function Cheat Sheet by

animal form and function basic principles

A&P form and function

anatomy
study of biological form of an organism
physiology
study of biological functions an organism performs

coordi­nation contri­butes to homeos­tasis

homeos­tasis
mainte­nacne of internal balance regardless of external enviro­nment
- in humans...
temp, blood pH, glucose
achieved by:
fluctu­ations around a set point
 
stimulus by sensor­/re­ceptor
 
sensor triggers response
 

A&P organi­zation

cells to tissues to organs to organ systems
digestive system
circul­atory system
respir­atory system
excretory system

homeos­tasis: thermo­reg­ulation

thermo­reg­ulation
mainte­nance of internal temp in a tolerable range
endoth­ermic:
generate heat by metabolism
 
BIRDS AND MAMMALS
ectoth­ermic
gain heat from external source
 
invert­ebr­ates, fish, amphib­ians, reptiles

animal bioene­rgetics

 

energy transfer and transf­orm­ation

metabolic rate
amount of energy an animal uses per unit time
basal metabolic rate
endotherms
standard metabolic rate
ectotherms
dependent on:
size, activity, enviro­nment
 

A&P tissues

epithelial
strat. squamous= mouth
 
pseudo strat colum= espohogus
 
simp squam= lungs
 
simp colum= intestines
 
cube= kidneys
connective
loose, fibrous, bone, adipose, cartilage, blood
muscle
skeletal- "­mus­cle­s"
 
cardiac= heart involu­ntary
 
smooth= intestines involu­ntary
nervous
neurons and glia

torpor

torpor
physio­logical state of low metabolism
hibern­ation
long term torpor
 

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