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Anatomy & Physiology Unit 2: Histology Cheat Sheet by

Anatomy & Physiology Unit 2: Histology

Epithelial Tissue

epi: above, over, outer
charac­ter­istics:
1) closely packaged cells
2) polarity: apical (free) surface and basal (attached) surface
3) supported underneath by connective tissue
4) has nerves, but no blood vessels (avasc­ular)
5) can regenerate easily

Types of Epithelium Image

What makes a tissue connec­tive?

1) common origin: mesenchyme
2) variation in blood supply
~blood and bone are vascular
~tendons and ligaments are poorly vascular
3) extrac­ellular matrix
~ground substance, fibers, cells

Ground Substance, Fibers, Cells Image

Root Words

-blast: build, create
-cyte: cell
Adip-: fat
Chondro-: cartilage
Osteo-: bone
Hema-: blood

Cartilage Tissue Image

Epithelial Glands

gland: group of epithelial cells that make and secrete a product
secretion: both the process and the "­stu­ff" that comes out of a gland

Glands in Skin Image

Exocrine Gland Examples

merocrine gland: no part of the cell is lost with the secretion (ex: salivary gland)
apocrine gland: the top of the cell is lost with the secretion (ex: mammary glands)
holocrine gland: the whole cell detaches with the secretion (ex: sebaceous glands)

Exocrine Gland Examples Image

Cardiac Muscles

structure:
~branched
 
~1 or 2 nuclei
 
~striated
speed:
~in between slow and fast
control:
~invol­untary (autom­atic; brain takes over)
location:
~heart

Cardiac Muscle Image

Serous Membrane

structure:
~composed of the mesoth­elium
 
~outer layer: lines the body cavities called parietal
 
~inner layer: covers the internal organs called visceral
 
~made up of simple squamous epithelial cells and loose connective tissue
function:
secretes serous fluid that lubricates the membrane and reduces abrasion and friction between the two layers
location:
~line the body cavities closed to the exterior of the body
 
~~ex) the perito­neal, pleural, and perica­rdial cavities
 

Layers of Epithelial Tissue

simple: one layer
strati­fied: more than one layer

Layers of Epithelial Tissue Image

Where can we find some of this tissue?

squamous: walls of capill­aries and alveoli in lungs
cuboidal: lining of ducts in glands
columnar: lining of airways
stratified squamous: skin and lining of mouth

Where can we find some of this tissue? Image

Areolar Tissue Image

Bone Tissue Image

Endocrine Gland

structure: varied
function: endocrine glands produce hormones that are secreted into surrou­nding extrac­ellular space
~stay inside the body
~travel to other organs­/cells to have an effect
location: ex) pineal, hypoth­alamus, pituitary, thyroid, parath­yroid, thymus, adrenal, pancreas, ovary, and testes

Endocrine Gland Image

Smooth Muscles

structure:
~spindle shaped
 
~1 nuclei
speed:
~slow
control:
~invol­untary (autom­atic; brain takes over)
location:
~walls of hollow organs (e.g. stomach)
 
~walls of blood vessels

Smooth Muscle Image

Nervous Tissue

composed of:
~neurons
 
~suppo­rting cells
function:
~generate and transmit chemical and electrical signals to...
 
1) respond to stimulus
 
2) commun­icate within the body
location:
~brain
 
~spinal cord
 
~perip­heral nerves (throu­ghout body tissues)

Nervous Tissue Image

Cutaneous Membrane

structure:
~consists of kerati­nized stratified squamous epithelium
function:
~protects the body from desicc­ation and pathogens
location:
~skin, covers the body surface
 

Shape of Cells

squamous: cells are flat
cuboidal: cells are shaped like cubes
columnar: cells are shaped like columns
basement membrane: bottom; connective tissue
pseudo­str­atified columnar: false layers of columnar shaped cells

Shape of Cells Image

Connective Tissue

most abundant and widely distri­buted tissue
functions:
1) binding and support
2) protection
3) insulation
4) transport substances

Connective Tissue Fibers

provide support
~elastic: branched; provides stretch
~retic­ular: fine branched network
~collagen: no branching; strength

Connective Tissue Cells

fibrob­last: make connective tissue proper
chondr­oblast: make cartilage
osteob­last: make bone
hemato­poietic stem cell: make blood

Adipose Tissue Image

Blood Image

Exocrine Gland

structure: unicel­lular and multic­ellular (simple (unbra­nched) and compound (branc­hed))
function: secrete out onto body cavity surfaces or on to body surfaces
location: skin and body cavities
~ex) goblet cells: produce mucus in the intestinal and respir­atory tracts
~ex) sweat, oil, salivary glands...

Exocrine Gland Image

Goblet Cell Image

Skeletal Muscles

structure:
~multi­nuc­leated
 
~straight
 
~striated
speed:
~fast
control:
~voluntary (you control it)
location:
~throu­ghout the body
 
~attached to tendons and bone
 
~attach to aponeu­rosis

Skeletal Muscle Image

Mucous Membrane

structure:
~coated with secretions of mucous glands
 
~composite of connective and epithelial tissue
function:
~secrete mucous
 
~helps support the fragile epithelial layers
 
~prevents bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated
location:
~line the digestive, respir­atory, urinary, and reprod­uctive tracts

Membrane Locations Image

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