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Anatomy & Physiology Unit 1: Intro to Anatomy Cheat Sheet by

Anatomy & Physiology Unit 1: Intro to Anatomy

Anatomy vs. Physiology

anatomy: structure of an organism (what does it look like?)
physio­logy: function of an organism (what does it do?)

Human Body Systems

digestive
immune
circul­atory
integu­mentary
nervous
lymphatic
excretory
reprod­uctive
respir­atory
endocrine
skeletal
muscular

Excretory System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
kidneys
1) removes waste products from cellular metabolism (urea, water, carbon dioxide)
ureters
2) filters blood
bladder
urethra
lungs
skin (sweat glands)
liver (produces urea)

Excretory System Image

Skeletal System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
bones
1) protects organs
cartilage
2) provides shape, support
ligaments
3) stores materials (fats, minerals)
 
4) produces blood cells
 
5) allows movement

Skeletal System Image

Endocrine System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
glands (produce hormones)
1) regulates body activities using hormones. slow response, long lasting
~hypot­halamus
~pituitary
~thyroid
~thymus
~adrenal
~pancreas
~ovaries
~testes

Endocrine System Image

Reprod­uctive System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
ovaries (produce eggs)
1) allows organisms to reproduce which prevents their species from becoming extinct
testes (produce sperm)

Reprod­uctive System Image

Negative Feedback

when the effect­or(s) activated by the control center oppose or eliminate stimulus
ex) blood sugar regulation

Negative Feedback Image (Blood Sugar Regula­tion)

Regional Terms: Posterior View

cephalic: head
otic: ear
occipital: back of head or base of skull
acromial: point of shoulder
vertebral: spinal column
scapular: shoulder blade
lumbar: loin
brachial: arm
olecranal: back of elbow
dorsum­/do­rsal: back
manus: hand
sacral: between hips
gluteal: buttock
perineal: region between anus and external genitalia
femoral: thigh
popliteal: back of knee
sural: calf
calcaneal: heel
plantar: sole

Regional Terms: Posterior View Image

Inferior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

also known as caudal
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below
ex) the navel is inferior to the breastbone

Inferior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Interm­ediate (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

between a more medial and a more lateral structure
ex) the armpit is interm­ediate between the breastbone and shoulder

Interm­ediate (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Im

Superf­icial (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

toward or at the body surface
ex) the skin is superf­icial to the skeleton

Superf­icial (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Img

Deep (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

away from the body surface; more internal
ex) the lungs are deep to the rib cage

Deep (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Abdomi­nop­elvic Quadrants Image

CT

full name:
computed tomography
how does it work?
different tissues absorb the electr­oma­gnetic radiation in various amount
what does it show?
shows cross sectional pictures of the body region scanned
when is it used?
used to evaluate brain and abdominal problems without the need of explor­atory surgery

CT Image

MRI

full name:
magnetic resonance imaging
how does it work?
magnetic energy causes the spin of hydrogen molecules, and their energy is enhanced by radio waves; when the radio waves are turned off, energy is released and translated by a computer into a visual image
what does it show?
dense structures do not show and soft tissue, like the the brain, can be evaluated
when is it used?
to evaluate soft tissue, brain, interv­ert­ebral pads and cartilage to detect degene­rative disease

MRI Image

 

Levels of Organi­zation

atoms -> molecules -> macrom­ole­cules -> organelles -> cells -> tissues -> organs -> organ systems -> organism

8 Necessary Life Functions (Human)

1) maintain bounda­ries: inside is separate from the outside
2) movement: whole body and cellular level
3) respon­siv­ene­ss/­irr­ita­bility: sense and respond to changes in the enviro­nment
4) digestion: breaking down food to nutrients
5) metabo­lism: breaking down and building molecules for energy
6) excretion: remove wastes from the body
7) reprod­uction: cellular or organismal level
8) growth: cellular or organismal level

Circul­atory System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
heart
1) transport materials to and from cells
veins
arteries
capill­aries
blood

Circul­atory System Image

Respir­atory System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
nose
1) takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water
trachea
bronchi
bronch­ioles
alveoli
lungs

Respir­atory System Image

Immune System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
white blood cells
1) fights off foreign invaders in the body
~T cells
~B cells (produce antibo­dies)
~macro­phages
skin

Immune System Image

Lymphatic System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
lymph (liquid part of blood - plasma, when it is in lymph vessels)
1) stores and carries white blood cells that fight disease
lymph vessels
2) collects excess fluid and returns it to blood (second circul­atory system - reaches places other one can't - between cells)
lymph nodes
contain white blood cells

Lymphatic System Image

Positive Feedback

initial stimulus produces a response that exagge­rates or enhances its effects; less common
ex) labor and delivery

Positive Feedback Image (Labor and Delivery)

The Language of Anatomy

special termin­ology is used to prevent misund­ers­tan­dings
exact terms are used for:
~position
~regions
~direction
~struc­tures

Superior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

toward the head end or upper part of a structure of the body; above
ex) the forehead is superior to the nose

Superior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Anterior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

also known as ventral
toward or at the front of the body; in front of
ex) the breastbone is anterior to the spine

Anterior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Lateral (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

away from the midline of the body; on the outer side of
ex) the arms are lateral to the chest

Lateral (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Distal (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
ex) the knee is distal to the thigh

Distal (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Body Cavities

dorsal body cavity
ventral body cavity
~cranial cavity (brain)
~thoracic cavity (lungs)
~spinal cavity (spinal cord)
~abdom­ino­pelvic cavity
 
~~abdo­minal cavity (abdomen)
 
~~pelvic cavity (pelvis)

Body Cavities Image

PET Scan

full name:
positron emission tomography
how does it work?
requires an injection of short-­lived radioi­sotopes that have been tagged to biological molecules (ie. glucose) in order to view metabolic processes
what does it show?
provides insights into brain activity in people affected by mental illness, Alzhei­mer's disease, and epilepsy
when is it used?
to diagnose areas of impairment in the brain

PET Scan Image

fMRI

full name:
functional magnetic resonance imaging
how does it work?
follows blood flow in the brain in real time
what does it show?
shows brain activity
when is it used?
to diagnose brain disease; can not be used in the presence of metal in the body, pacema­kers, and tooth fillings

fMRI Image

 

Digestive System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
mouth
1) take in food (inges­tion)
esophagus
2) digest food into smaller molecules and absorb nutrients
small intestine
3) remove undigested food from body (feces)
large intestine
rectum
anus
salivary glands
pancreas
liver
gallbl­adder

Digestive System Image

Nervous System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
brain
1) gathers and interprets inform­ation
spinal cord
2) responds to inform­ation
nerves
3) helps maintain homeos­tasis
hypoth­alamus

Nervous System Image

Muscular System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
cardiac muscle
1) allows for movement by contra­cting
smooth muscle
skeletal muscle
tendons

Muscular System Image

Integu­mentary System

anatomy:
physio­logy:
skin
1) barrier against infection (first line of defense)
~epidermis
2) helps regulate body temper­ature
~dermis
3) removes excretory waste (urea, water)
~~sweat gland
4) protects against sun's UV rays
~~seba­ceous gland
5) produces vitamin D
~~hair follicle
~~blood vessels
~~nerves

Integu­mentary System Image

Homeos­tasis

"­hom­eo-­" = same
"­-st­asi­s" = standing or status
goal: to maintain a relatively constant internal enviro­nment

Positive Feedback vs. Negative Feedback

Regional Terms: Anterior View

axial: head, neck, and trunk
append­icular: appendages or limbs
nasal: nose
oral: mouth
cervical: neck
frontal: forehead
orbital: eye
buccal: cheek
mental: chin
acromial: point of shoulder
axillary: armpit
abdominal: abdomen
sternal: breastbone
thoracic: chest
mammary: breast
umbilical: naval (belly button)
brachial: arm
antecu­bital: front of elbow
antebr­achial: forearm
carpal: wrist
pollex: thumb
palmar: palm
digital: fingers
coxal: hip
pelvic: pelvis
inguinal: groin
pubic: genital region
femoral: thigh
patellar: anterior knee
crural: leg
fibula­r/p­ero­neal: side of leg
pedal: foot
tarsal: ankle
digital: toes
hallux: big toe

Regional Terms: Anterior View Image

Posterior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

also known as dorsal
toward or at the backside of the body; behind
ex) the heart is posterior to the breastbone

Posterior (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Medial (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
ex) the heart is medial to the arm

Medial (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Proximal (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term)

close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
ex) the elbow is proximal to the wrist (elbow is closer to shoulder or attachment point of arm than wrist is)

Proximal (Orien­tation and Direct­ional Term) Image

Body Planes Image

Xray

full name:
radiograph
how does it work?
shadowy negative image of internal structures produced by directing electr­oma­gnetic waves of very short wavelength at the body
what does it show?
best to visualize hard, body structures and locate abnormally dense structures (tumors, tuberc­ulosis nodules) in the lungs and breasts
when is it used?
to diagnose fractures and dense tumors

Xray Image

Ultrasound

full name:
ultras­ono­graphy
how does it work?
high frequency sound waves is its energy source; the sound waves go through the tissues without harming them, and the echoes are recorded
what does it show?
it shows visual images of body organs
when is it used?
preferred method for fetal evaluation

Ultrasound Image

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