Show Menu
Cheatography

AP Bio Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Cheat Sheet by

AP Bio Unit 1: Chemistry of Life

Chi-Square

((O-E)­^2)/E
Degrees of Freedom: n-1 (number of variants -1)
Critical Values: 95% certainty (0.05)
if the number is higher than the critical value, REJECT the null hypothesis

Surface Tension

measure of how difficult to stretc­h/break the surface
interface H bonds with molecules on surface and below the surface
causes water to bead

Water is the Solvent of Life

solution: homoge­neous mixture of two or more substances
solvent: dissolving agent
solute: substance that is dissolved
aqueous solution: water is solvent

Nucleic Acids - Structure

Monomer - Nucleo­tide:
DNA:
RNA:
sugar (ribose, deoxyr­ibose)
deoxyr­ibose
ribose
nitrogen base (pyrim­idine (C,T,U and one ring) and purine (A,G and two rings)
A, T, G, C
A, U, G, C
phosphate
double strand
single strand

Protein Structure

 

Properties of Water

cohesive behavior
resists changes in temper­ature
expands when it freezes
versatile solvent
polar, covalent
H+ and O-

Hydrogen Bonding

absorb heat to break
release heat to form

Hydrop­hobic vs. Hydrop­hilic

Hydrop­hobic:
Hydrop­hilic:
do not have affinity to water
has affinity for water
non-ionic, non-polar repel water
even if substance does not dissolve (cotton)

Peptide Bonds

carbonyl adjacent to amino
formed by dehydr­ation
N-terminus (amino group)
C-terminus (carboxyl group)
 
formed by dehydr­ation

Primary Structure

unique sequence of amino acids
DNA -> RNA -> protein
Lysozyme (129 amino acids, inherited)

Secondary Structure

coils and folds
result of hydrogen bonding
only atoms in backbone are involved
α helix and β pleated sheets

Lipids Structure

diverse non-polar, hydrop­hobic molecules (insol­uble)
hydroc­arbons
glycerol and fatty acids
 

Cohesion

cohesion held together by hydrogen bonds
plants: upward water transport
adhesion: water to other types of molecules (plant wall)

Density

ice floats: hydrogen bonds make water less dense in solid state
water is densest at -4 C

Acids and Bases

Acids:
Bases:
increase the hydrogen ion concen­tration of a solution
reduces hydrogen ion concen­tration
lower pH
higher pH

Amino Acid Structure

Tertiary Structure

intera­ctions of side chains (R groups)
hydrop­hobic intera­ctions
disulfide bridges
hydrogen bonds
ionic bonds

Quaternary Structure

overall protein structure
aggreg­ation of two or more polype­ptide chains
protein confor­mation (inter­actions respon­sible for 2' and 3', physical and chemical condit­ions)
denatu­ration: unfolding of protein structure

Saturated fat vs. Unsatu­rated fat

Saturated fat:
Unsatu­rated fat:
no double bonds
double bonds
max number of hydrogens
tail kinks at double bond
solid at room temp
liquid at room temp
animal fats (bacon, grease, lard, butter)
plant fats (corn, peanut, olive oil)
 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          AP Biology Unit 2: The Cell and Cell Membrane Cheat Sheet
          AP Biology Unit 1: Biochemistry Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by julescrisfulla

          AP Bio Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function Cheat Sheet
          AP Bio Unit 3: Cell Energetics Cheat Sheet
          AP Bio Unit 4: Cell Communication and Cell Cycle Cheat Sheet