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AP Biology Unit 3: Energy and Metabolism Cheat Sheet by

Ch 10: Photosynthesis; Ch 9: Cellular Respiration

Mitoch­ondria

Glycolysis

Glycolysis
2 ATP + 1 Glucose 2 pyretic acid + 4 ATP
Substrate level phosphorylationATP
PFK=al­los­teric enzyme inhibited by ATP

Chloro­plasts

Parts: outer/­inner membranes, interm­embrane space, thylakoid membra­ne/­space, storm
Chloro­phyll a/b=absorb red/bl­ue/­violet
Carote­noi­ds=­absorb blue/g­ree­n/v­iolet

Noncyclic Photop­hos­pho­ryl­ation

Photos­ystem II (P680)PhotolysisETCChemiosmosisNADPPhotosystem I (P700)
 

Citric Acid/Krebs Cycle

substr­ate­-level phosphorylationATP+pyruvate
pyruva­te+­coe­nzyme Aacetyl CoA
products=3 NADH, 1 ATP, 1 FADH, CO₂

Cyclic Photop­hos­pho­ryl­ation

Cycles electrons from P680 ETCP700primary electron acceptorcytochrome complex (ETC)

Photor­esp­ira­tion, C-4, & CAM

Photor­esp­iration
rubisco binds with O₂ instead of CO₂; produces no ATP or sugar
C-4 plants
use alternate C-fixation (PEP carbox­ylase) that ends in a 4C compound (occurs in mesophyll & bundle sheath cells)
CAM plants
carbon fixation to organic acids at nightlight reactions release CO₂ in the day
 

ETC/Ox­idative Phosph­ory­lat­ion­/Ch­emi­osmosis

chemio­smosis= energy­-co­upling mechanism using potential energy in H+ gradient; phosph­ory­lates ADPATP
oxygen­=final hydrogen acceptor

Fermen­tation

facult­ative anaerobes
tolerate, but do not use, O₂
obligate anaerobes
cannot live in an enviro­nment w/O₂
alcohol fermen­tation
converts pyruvate into ethyl alcoho­l+CO₂ & oxidizes NADH to NAD+
lactic acid fermen­tation
reduces pyruvate into lactic acid (lactate) & oxidizes NADH to NAD+

Calvin Cycle

                       

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