C6H12O6 + O2 → H2O + CO2
H2O + CO2 → C6H12O6 + O2
(NADH, FADH2, NADPH):
Carry e- in the form of H+ ions. They drop e- either at the ETC to make ATP or the Calvin Cycle to help bond formation.
Enzyme that synthesizes ATP - Uses chemiosmosis in order to in order to phosphorylate ADP into ATP
ATP Synthase transports a proton down the gradient and uses the energy to complete the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP.
2 ATP + 1 Glucose → 2 pyretic acid + 4 ATP
PFK = allosteric enzyme inhibited by ATP
Krebbs/Citric Acid Cycle
Substrate Level Phosphorylation: ATP + pyruvate
Pyruvate + coenzyme A: acetyl CoA
Products: 3 NADH, 1 ATP, 1 FADH, CO₂
Equation: 2acetyl groups + 6NAD+ + 2FAD + 2ADP + 2Pi → 4CO2 + 6NADH + 6H+ + 2 FADH2 + 2ATP
Oxygen = Final e- Acceptor.
Step 1: Generating a Proton Motive Force.
Step 2: ATP Synthesis via Chemiosmosis.
Step 3: Reduction of Oxygen.
Summary: Oxidative Phosphorylation.
Tolerate, but do not use, O₂
Cannot live in an environment w/O₂
Converts pyruvate into ethyl alcohol + CO₂ & oxidizes NADH to NAD+
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Reduces pyruvate into lactic acid (lactate) & oxidizes NADH to NAD+
Light Dependent Stage
In light-dependent reactions, the energy from sunlight is absorbed by chlorophyll and converted into chemical energy in the form of electron carrier molecules like ATP and NADPH.
Light energy is harnessed in Photosystems I and II, both of which are present in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts.
Calvin Cycle / Light Independent Stage
Carbohydrate molecules are assembled from carbon dioxide using the chemical energy harvested during the light-dependent reactions.
The movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient. An example of this would be the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the movement of hydrogen ions (H+) across a membrane during cellular respiration or photosynthesis.
Photorespiration, C-4, & CAM
rubisco binds with O₂ instead of CO₂; produces no ATP or sugar
Use alternate C-fixation (PEP carboxylase) that ends in a 4C compound (occurs in mesophyll & bundle sheath cells)
Carbon fixation to organic acids at night → light reactions release CO₂ in the day