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Biology Hereditary Cheat Sheet by


Mitosis VS Meiosis

Cell Division
Produces Daughter Cells
Replaces Old Cells, Adds New
Production of Gametes
Produces Daughter Cells with 1/2 as many chromo­somes as the starting cell.

Meiosis I

Meiosis II


Patterns of Inheri­tance

Law of Dominance
One allele is dominant. It always shows unless it isn't present
Law of Segreg­ation
During production of gametes, 2 copies of each allele separate. Therefore, one allele is needed from each parent.
Law of Indepe­­ndent Assortment
Individual alleles assort indepe­­nd­e­ntly. This gives different traits equal chance of occurring together.
Incomplete dominance
Dominant allele partially expressed, resulting in an interm­­ediate phenotype Example: Rr If Red is Dominant and White is recessive, the phenotype is pink.
2 dominant alleles, Phenotype is neither dominant nor recessive. Example: In blood, types A and B are codomi­­nant, O is recessive. AB blood is therefore possible.
Sex-Linked Inheri­­tance
A trait is associated with the X or Y chromo­­some. (Males can never be carrier).
Polygenic Inheri­­tance
Multiple genes affect one trait Examples: Hair color, skin color, eye color)

Patterns of Inheri­tance Examples

Law of Dominance
Pea Plants
Law of Segreg­ation
Pea Plants
Law of IA
Mendelian Dyhybrid Cross (Peas)
Incomplete Dom.
Pink Roses
AB Blood Type
Sex Linked Inheri­tance
Color Blindness, Muscular
Dystrophy, Hemophelia
Polygenic Inheri­tance
Skin/E­ye/Hair Color
Red Hair, Albinism


failed separation of homologous chromo­somes - aneuploidy (trisomy, polyploidy


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