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Biology Hereditary Cheat Sheet by

AP BIOLOGY HEREDITARY

Mitosis VS Meiosis

Mito­sis
Cell Division
Produces Daughter Cells
Replaces Old Cells, Adds New
Meio­sis
Production of Gametes
Produces Daughter Cells with 1/2 as many chromo­somes as the starting cell.

Meiosis I

Meiosis II

 

Patterns of Inheri­tance

Law of Domina­nce
One allele is dominant. It always shows unless it isn't present
Law of Segreg­ation
During production of gametes, 2 copies of each allele separate. Therefore, one allele is needed from each parent.
Law of Indepe­­ndent Assort­ment
Individual alleles assort indepe­­nd­e­ntly. This gives different traits equal chance of occurring together.
Inco­mplete domina­nce
Dominant allele partially expressed, resulting in an interm­­ediate phenotype Example: Rr If Red is Dominant and White is recessive, the phenotype is pink.
Codo­mi­­nance
2 dominant alleles, Phenotype is neither dominant nor recessive. Example: In blood, types A and B are codomi­­nant, O is recessive. AB blood is therefore possible.
Sex-­Linked Inheri­­ta­nce
A trait is associated with the X or Y chromo­­some. (Males can never be carrier).
Poly­genic Inheri­­ta­nce
Multiple genes affect one trait Examples: Hair color, skin color, eye color)
 

Patterns of Inheri­tance Examples

Law of Dominance
Pea Plants
Law of Segreg­ation
Pea Plants
Law of IA
Mendelian Dyhybrid Cross (Peas)
Incomplete Dom.
Pink Roses
Codomi­nance
AB Blood Type
Sex Linked Inheri­tance
Color Blindness, Muscular
Dystrophy, Hemophelia
Polygenic Inheri­tance
Skin/E­ye/Hair Color
Epistasis
Red Hair, Albinism

Mutations

Nond­is­­jun­­ct­ion
failed separation of homologous chromo­somes - aneuploidy (trisomy, polyploidy
                               

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