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AP Biology Unit 4: Plant Physiology Cheat Sheet by

Ch 30: The Evolution of Seed Plants; Ch 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology; Ch 39: Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals

Gymnos­perms vs. Angios­perms

Gameto­phy­te/­Spo­rophyte Cycle

Angiosperm Reprod­uction

 

Seed Develo­pment

Monocot vs. Dicot

Types of Fruits

 

Plant Transport

Short-­dis­tance
occurs by osmosis (movement of free water through aquapo­rins)
Long-d­istance
bulk flow using:
translocation (H+ gradient) through phloem (sugar)
transpirational pull (cohesion) through xylem (fluid­/mi­nerals)

Plant Hormones

Auxins
distri­bution of auxinsphototropism
enhances apical dominance (vertical)
promotes fruit growth
Cytokinins
stimulates cytoki­nesis & cell division
delays senescence (aging)
Gibber­ellins
cause stem elonga­tion, fruit growth, & seed germination
auxin+gibberellins=fruit develo­pment
Brassi­nos­teroids
induce cell elongation & division in stem segments, slow leaf abscission
Abscisic Acid (ABA)
antago­nizes growth hormones, inhibits germin­ation, used to withstand drought
must be washed­/ex­posed to light/cold to deactivate
Ethylene Gas
produced in response to stress during fruit ripening, apoptosis, & exposure to auxin
                                               

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