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Biodiversity Cheat Sheet by

Ecology Biodiversity sheet

What is Biodiv­ersity?

Biodiv­ersity is a term used to describe the enormous variety of life on Earth. It can be used more specif­ically to refer to all of the species in one region or ecosystem. Biodiv­ersity refers to every living thing, including plants, bacteria, animals, and humans.
Biodiv­ersity components
Ecological diversity
Biomes, Bioreg­ions, Landsc­apes, Ecosys­tems, Habitats, Niches, Population
Organismal diversity
Kingdom, Phyla, Families, Genera, Species, Subspe­cies, Popula­tion, Individual
Genetic diversity
Popula­tion, Indivi­dual, Chromo­some, Genes, Nucleo­tides

Convation of Biodiv­ersity

Convention on Biodiv­ersity link
Set up in 1988 by United Nations Enviro­nnent Programme (UNEP)
Have a group of experts and scientists
Need to share costs between developed and developing countries
It represents a dramatic step forward in the conser­vation of biological diversity, the sustai­nable use of its compon­ents, and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
1992- 1993 received 168 signatures committing to change
 

Ecological diversity

The variation in both terres­trial and aquatic ecosys­tems. Ecological diversity can also take into account the variation in the complexity of a biological community, including the number of different niches, the number of and other ecological processes.
Looking at diversity at a broder scale
The approuch we now use to look at conserving diversity
Can be dificult to distin­guish between different Bimoes
Wetland, Moors, Chalk Grassland
Has a wide range of different species
Can be within a very small area

Organismal diversity

About the number and types of different individual species out there.
Classi­fic­ation of species into groups
Linked to lineage
Full taxonomic diversity
Names are meant to represent their decent. Unders­tanding about species.

Genus name change

Example of a Tomato plants name change and how using linage can get confusing
1753: Linnaeus- Solanum lycope­rsicum
1768: Miller- Lycope­rsicon esculentum
1881: Karst- Lycope­rsicon lycope­rsicum
1974: Nicolson- Lycope­rsicon lycope­rsicum
1983: Lycope­rsicon esculentum (Miller)
2001: Peralta & Spooner- Genetics put it in the Solanum genus
Ongoing conflict with the name- including in the literature
 

Genetic Diversity

What makes a species the species it is?
How does one individual differ from another?
Can be a different number of Chomesones
This is why Donkeys and Horses can't always mate

Benefits of genetic diversity

Different varieties of wheat:
> Enviro­nmental prefer­ences
> Seasonal prefer­ences (winter)
> Heat and drought tolerance
> Yield
> Resistance to disease or pests
> Protein content
Utilise wild and altern­ative varieties
Genetic breeding and/or Genetic Modifi­cation

Genetic Subspecies of Tiger

Genetic tests 2004
Identified 6 subspecies of tigers (and 3 extinct)
Geographic isolation and morpho­logical charac­ter­istics
Bengal tiger, Amur tiger, South China tiger, Sumatran tiger, Indoch­inese tiger, and Malayan tiger
Split around 100,000 years ago
natural selection to adapt to different habitats.
Very little gene flow between subspecies

Conerv­ation can be hard

Can't save every species
Need to prioritise
Different threats
Some might be threatened by land use other by poaching. Need to focus on one problem rather than multiple
If fousing on one Subspecies you don't have to travel as much as if you looked at the whole spieces
Which is the most beneficial to save
                               
 

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