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Species Cheat Sheet by

Ecology Species sheet

Biological Species

A group of interb­reeding natural population that do not (usually) succes­sfully mate or reproduce with other such groups (which occupy a specific niche)
Asexual Species
Fragme­ntation - Starfish
An arm is removed, and grows into a new Starfish. Where the arm that was removed, a new arm will regrow on the old body.
Budding - Yeast cells
Buds come off of their organisms which, are geneti­cally identical to them.
When relatives mate
Two different, yet closely relating species mate
Horse + Donkey = Mules (mostly infertile)
Russet­-backed Thrush + Olived­-backed Thrush (fertile offspring)

Cohesion Species

Small group of cohesive indivi­duals that share intrinsic cohesive mechan­isms.
Genetic cohesive mechanisms
Gene flow and stabil­ising selection function to maintain species integrity
Ecological cohesive mechanisms
Abundance, demogr­aphic stability, strengths of intera­ctions with other species
Potential for genetic and/or demogr­aphic exchan­gea­bility.
Downplays hybrid­isation (i.e. what separates species)

Ecological Species

Lineages that occupy and adaptive zone different in some way from that of any other lineage within its range, and which evoles separately from all other lineages outside its range
Common ancestor but now diverged Ecological compet­ition within its own species
Adapting to individual niches

Recogn­ition Species

Recognise each other for the purpose of mating and reprod­uction
Linked to features used to recognise mates
White peacock
Females would not recognise him as the same speices. They may not mate with him.
The Western meadowlark and Eastern meadowlark
Look very similar but have a different song. They do not breed as their distinct song prevents them from recogn­ising each other.

The sixth mass extinction

Earth appears to be undergoing a 6th mass extintion
Extinction is occurring faster than "­bac­kground extint­ion­" (which occurs between the mass extinction events)
1 species extinct per 1 million species each year
Rate of between 10-10,000 times faster than background extinction
Recent data
Lower estimate
200-2000 species a year
Upper estimate
10,000­-10­0,000 species a year
Extinction comes after
Decrease in poppul­ation size
Decrease in population distri­bution

Hard to know..

We don't know how many species exist
Impossible to estimate
>Take samples and extrap­olate up >Look at patterns in identi­cation rates >Look at ratio - such as 1:6 vascular plants to fungi
Bias towards species
>Ch­ari­smatic >Larger >Common species
Least known or described
>Fungi >Vi­ruses >Ba­cteria
1.5 million catalogued so far
100k well known
Eastimated to be 3-10 million species globally

Anthro­pogenic causes

Anthro­pogenic hazards are hazards caused by human action or inaction. They are contrasted with natural hazards. Anthro­pogenic hazards may adversely affect humans, other organisms, biomes, and ecosys­tems.
land develo­pment
is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as: Changing landforms from a natural or semi-n­atural state for a purpose such as agricu­lture or housing Subdiv­iding real estate
the action or fact of making excessive use of a resource.
Species transl­oca­tions and introd­uctions
Transl­oca­tion: The intent­ional capture and release of animals to the wild to establish, reesta­blish, or augment a popula­tion.
the presence in or introd­uction into the enviro­nment of a substance which has harmful or poisonous effects.


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