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HAPI Week 1 Part 2 Cheat Sheet by

Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 Week 1 Part 2


2.1 Identify the structure and function of the cell and its organelles
2.2 Describe the structure and capabi­lities of the cell membrane


Cells (-cyte)
Smallest unit of life
The structural units of nearly all living things
Comes in a variety of shapes and sizes - their anatomy 'compl­ements' their physiology
Most cells have 3 main parts: Nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma (cell) membrane
Nucleus - Control centre
Cytoplasm - jelly-like substance that acts as support. Contains H2O (cytosol) & Organelles ('little organs')
Plasma (cell) membrane - Outer 'coat'

Structure of a genera­lised cell

Organelles - 'little organs'

Found inside the cell
They are structures designed to carry out specific functions
For example:
Ribosomes - float free or attached to rough ER, makes proteins
Endopl­asmic reticulum (ER) - 2 types (rough & smooth)
Golgi apparatus

The Nucleus

Almost every cell has one
Cytoplasm inside the nucleus is called nucleo­plasm
Nucleus contains the genetic material (DNA) seen as strings called chromatin
Nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane containing pores - sometimes called the nuclear envelope
Directs the activity of the cell i.e.:
Cell division
Makes ribosomes required by a cell, most ribosomes migrate into the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs
Nuclear envelope regulates substances in and out of the nucleus through pores; without a nucleus, the cell cannot survive very long


Sausage shaped organelle with a double layered membrane
'Power­house of the cell' as it converts food into energy (uses O2 to break down food)
Some power escapes as heat but the rest is used to form ATP molecules
ATP is vital for cell function
All living cells require ATP for its activities

Endopl­asmic reticulum (ER)

Network of channels transp­orting substances around the cell
Two types: Rough and smooth
Rough ER
Smooth ER
Called rough as it has ribosomes on its surface (and inside)
No role in protein synthesis
Proteins made here are dispatched to other ares of the cell in vesicles
Assists with choles­terol & lipd metabolism
Detoxifies drugs and pesticides

Plasma membrane

Flexible barrier surrou­nding the cell
Every cell has a plasma membrane
Seperates the intra-­cel­lular enviro­nment (inside) from the extra-­cel­lular enviro­nment (outside)
Made up of four main compon­ents: Bi-layer of phosph­oli­pids, Proteins, Choles­terol, Carboh­ydrates - Glycol­ipids & Glycop­roteins
It's ability to regulate entry & exit of substances makes it 'selec­tively permeable'
Phosph­olipids arrange themselves so their hydrop­hilic end is outwards & their hydrop­hobic end is inwards, creating an oily film
Plasma (cell) membrane proteins:
Proteins found in the plasma membrane do most of the specia­lised functions
They act as:
Receptors - for messenger molecules like neurot­ran­smi­tters & hormones
Channels - act as gates allowing water & other substances through
Carriers - pumping things in and out of the cell


Membranous bags containing powerful digestive enzymes
Demolition site of the cell
Digests worn out materials for the cell - Focus on bacteria, viruses & toxins


Dense support scaffold of filaments & cylinders for transport & shape
E.g., actin & myosin in muscles

Golgi apparatus

Stack of flattened membrane sacs with many vesicles
Collects proteins from the rough ER
Modifies and repackages proteins
Sorts and redirects proteins
End product is transp­orted around the cell in vesicles to three different destin­ations:
Become part of the cell
Are secreted from the cell
Ramain inside the cell


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