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HAPI Week 1 Part 1 Cheat Sheet by

Human Anatomy & Physiology 1, Week One (The Human Body: An orientation)

1.1 Define Anatomy & Physiology

The study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relati­onship to each other
The study of how the body and its parts work or function
Gross anatomy: easily observ­able, can be seen with the naked eye
Many sub-di­visions e.g. neurop­hys­iology, cellular physiology
Micros­copic anatomy: only seen at high magnif­ication (Cells & Tissues)

1.4 Homeos­tasis, negative & positive feedback

Negative feedback
Positive feedback
The body's ability to maintain a relatively stable internal enviro­nment
Most common homeos­tatic control mechanism
Rather than reversing the direction of the response, creates a loop
Involves all body systems
Shuts of the original stimulus, or reduces intensity of reaction
Example is contra­ctions in childbirth
Must be maintained for normal body functions and to sustain life
Works like a heater with a thermostat
Contra­ctions cause pain, but the production of oxytocin creates a positive feedback loop, continuing the contra­ctions to push baby out
Homeos­tatic imbalance is a distur­bance in homeos­tasis resulting in disease, e.g., excessive sweating
if the level of something rises, control systems reduce it again
Positive feedback loops back to homeos­tasis through response, negative feedback reverses to homeos­tasis by opposing stimulus
Examples of how homeos­tatic imbalance affects body: imbalanced reprod­uctive hormones could lead to infert­ility, imbalance of calcium could lead to osteop­orosis
If the level of something falls, control systems rise it again
Commun­icates through neural and hormonal contriol systems: Receptor (Detects change and sends inform­ation to control centre) -> Control centre (Deter­mines set point, analyses inform­ation and determines approp­riate respon­se)­-> Effector (Carries out necessary change)

1.2 Levels of structural organi­sation

Chemicals - e.g. Atoms: Carbon, Hydrogen etc.
Molecules - e.g. water, sugar, protein
Organelles - e.g. mitoch­ondria
Cells - e.g. bone cell, muscle cell
Tissues - e.g. connective
Organs - e.g. lungs
Organ system - e.g. cardio­vas­cular
Organism - e.g. made up of many organs (humans)

1.3 Types of tissue

There are 4 types of tissue: Epithe­lial, Connec­tive, Muscle & Nervous
Epithelial: Covers body surfaces and lines cavities; Forms glands; Closely packed; Always has a free surface (not covered by another tissue)
Nervous: Conducts electrical signals; Protects, binds, and supports the body and its organs; Stores energy & helps with immunity; Most abundant & widely distri­buted; Serves as transport system; Can be fluid, semi-s­olid, or solid
Muscle: Specia­lised cells that contract and shorten; In the process generates heat
Connective: Cells organised to provide protec­tion, support, and 'holding together'; Detects changes to the internal and external body; Responds by generating electrical signals (action potent­ials)

1.5 Major organ systems and their major function

11 organ systems
Integu­mentary - Largest organ of the body; forms a protective layer from external enviro­nment; skin, hair, nails & associated glands (sweat, mammary, sebaceous and ceruminous
Skeletal - Support structure for your body; allows movement; makes blood cells; stores minerals
Muscular - Attached to bones or organs and blood vessels; respon­sible for movement
Nervous - Transmits signals between brain and body; controls ability to see, move, think, breathe etc
Endocrine - Made up of the body's different hormones; regulates all biological processes;
Cardio­vas­cular - Supplies body;s organs with oxygen and nutrients; also carries CO2 and waste for disposal
Digestive - Breaks down food into nutrients to make those nutrients absorbable
Lymphatic - Part of immune system; protects body from illness; mainatins fluid levels etc
Respir­atory - A group of organs and tissues that work together to make you breathe; moves fresh air in the body and removes CO2 waste
Reprod­uctive - Collection of organs that allow the body to impreg­nat­e/b­ecome pregnant
Urinary - Filter blood and create urine as a waste byproduct
All work together to maintain a healthy body


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