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Electrolyte Homeostasis Part 2 Cheat Sheet by

NURS601 Week 1 Concept 1: Too much/too little/not enough fluid

Causes of Fluid Volume Deficit

No water (dehyd­ration) - dehydr­ation refers to loss of pure water without a corres­ponding loss of sodium
Profuse sweating, hyperv­ent­ila­tion, diabetic ketoac­idosis, fevers, diarrhea, renal failure, diabetes insipidus
No Salt
Water intoxi­cation, chronic illness, malnut­rition, renal failure
Losing both water & electr­olytes e.g., hemorr­hage, diarrhoea & vomiting

Fluid volume excess

- Too much IV fluid, kidney failure, cortic­ost­eroids
Water intoxi­cation
- CHF, ADH problems, IV fluids, psych problems, wound irrigation
Too much sodium intake
- Too much salt, 3% saline IV, too much NaHCO3

Fluid volume deficit

Signs & symptoms
What can you do?
Low BP
Fluids (oral if alert)
Dry mouth, thirst
IV - normal saline (no potassium until urine output is increased)
Rapid weight loss
Daily weight,
Low urine output
May need antidi­arr­heals, antiem­etics, antibi­otics, antipy­retics
Confusion, Lethargy
Low grade fever

Fluid volume excess

Signs & symptoms
What can you do?
Rapid weight gain
Fluid restri­ction (No IV fluids)
High BP, bounding pulses
Sodium restri­ction
May have increased urine output
Daily weights, stricts I/O's
JVD (jugular vein disten­tion), crackles, dyspnea
Decreased LOC


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