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PESTEL analysis Cheat Sheet by

P - Political

Key features
- Politics
- National and intern­ational
- "­Trade War" "­Tru­mp"
- Tariffs
- Global­iza­tion, trade barriers
- Predic­table national politics

- Political stability
- Removal of trade barriers
- More trade between land and continents
- Strong develo­pment of public infras­tru­cture
- Intern­ational standa­rdi­zation [ex: Adapters, Ports]
- Less possib­ilities of flags of conven­ience
- social welfare
- National and local Political decisions [ex: Color-line and Fjord-line case]

Norwegian Maritime policies
- Salary subsides - State pays back tax from workers [Ships with Norwegian flag]
- Shipowners taxation [Reder­isk­att­eor­dni­ngen]
- Training positions on board subsides
- National transp­ort­ation plan
- GIEK - National guarantee fund

T - Technology and Competence

Key features
- Massive R&D and innovation activity in the companies
- Strong innovative cooper­ation between companies and between companies and resear­chers
- Strong education and R&D cooper­ation intern­ati­onally
[R&D - Research and develo­pment]

- Global technology / knowledge sharing
- Standa­rdized technology concepts [Norway - a huge partic­ipant]
- Easier access to competent work force
- Publicly funded research [Maritim 21]
- New innovative solutions
- Speed of technology transfer increases
- Failed projects

E - Economics

Key features
- Cyclical changes - industry and consum­ption
- intern­ational Fiance Markets - free flow of capital

- A challenge to predict economic cycles
- Access to capital for entrep­reneurs
- Ownership is rapidly changing
- Ration­ali­zation –cheaper inputs will be sought after
- Interest level
- Inflation
- Employment and unempl­oyment
- Disposable income [income to spend]
- Compet­ition

E - Enviro­nmental issues

Key Features
- Increa­singly powerful instit­utions
- More powerful pressure groups
- Green ships
- Tourism
- Scrubbers
- Paris agreement - emission

- Increasing emission reduction requir­ements (EKA)
- Accident reduction
- Focus on the social enviro­nment
- Access to energy –and the cost of energy
- Recycling
- Waste deposits
- Pollution regula­tions

S - Sosio-­Cul­tural Conditions

Key features
- More cross-­cul­tural and cross border contact
- Cluster struct­ure­s•I­nte­raction and knowledge sharing between the parties in the industry
- More interested parties tied to an industry

- Easier to commun­icate intern­ati­onally
- Closer cooper­ation across both transn­ational and cultural borders
- Demography
- Income distri­bution
- Social mobility
- Attitudes towards work
- Consum­pti­on•­Levels of education

Where do people live?

L - Legal issues

Key features
- Joint intern­ational legal framework
- Lots of regula­tions
- Intern­ational
- Labor laws, ship building
- STCW, Maritime certif­icates

- Accident reduction
- Better workplace conditions
- More equal compet­ition conditions intern­ati­onally
- Stricter framework for ship manage­ments [IMO]
- Monopolies

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