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Lobes of the brain + intracranial disorders Cheat Sheet by

Lobes of the brain + intracranial disorders

Lobes of the brain

Types of Intrac­ranial disorders

Cere­bro­vas­cular damage
Haemor­rhage
 
Infarction
 
Aneurysms
 
Blood disorders
 
Arteri­ovenous Malfor­mations
Haem­ato­mas
Intradural
 
Extradural
Intr­acr­anial Tumours
Benign
 
Malignant
Intr­acr­anial infect­ion
Abscess
Post trauma
Concussion

Tumours

Supr­ate­ntorial Tumours
Infr­ate­ntorial Tumours
Raised ICP + brain shift S&S
Raised ICP + brain shift S&S
Tentorial herniation then tonsillar herniation
S&S of CSF outflow blockage
 
Causes tonsilliar herniation
 
VI Nerve Palsy - BS pushed downwards, stretches VI nerve over petrous tip Unre­liable sign
Extr­adural haemat­oma:
Pushes on hemisphere sideways under Falx, downwards through tentorium
Stretches CN III over edge of the tentorium - unilateral III nerve palsy reliable sign
 

Frontal Lobe

Func­tional areas:
Olfactory Bulb, tract + optic nerve
Frontal Poles
Cingulate Gyrus
Frontal eye fields
Corticol control of mictur­ition (urina­tion)
Corpus Callosum
Motor cortexes
Rolandic fissure (fissure between occupital + frontal lobe)
Sylvian Fissue (fissure between temporal + frontal lobe)
Broca's area

Frontal lobe Lesions:

Loss of drive
Apathy
Decreasing concern about personal appear­ance, hygiene, family affairs, business
Memory problems
Diminished intellect
Epil­epsy
Focal, motor
 
Adversive (includes eyes)
 
Status Epilep­ticus (seizure lasting 10 minutes or more)
 
Possible Temporal lobe attacks due to its close proximity
Frontal lobe - person­ality, acquired social behaviour

More Symptoms

Weakness on opposite side of face and/body
If parasa­gittal, legs are affected bilate­rally
Loss of mictur­ition (urge incont­inence)
Speech Distur­bance - Dysphagia (Broca's)
Visual Distur­bance - in visual and or acuity
Alteration in smell

Signs

Intell­ectual impairment
Memory Defect
+ve Grasp Reflex
Contra­lateral UMNL signs
Unilateral anosmia
Visual pathway deficits
Dysphasic signs

Occipital Lobe Functional areas

Visual Associ­ation areas
Main Visual cortex
Calcarine fissure (medially in right hemisp­here)

Occipital Lobe Lesions

Seizures with flashing light Aura
Visual Field Defects
Dyslexia
Visual Agnosia (cannot recognise visual inform­ation)
 

Parietal lobe Lesions (EITHER)

Sensory Seizures
Soft Motor signs
Visual pathway Distur­bance
Postural Sensation disturbed
Decreased Passive Joint Movement Sense
Touch Locali­sation Disturbed
2 pt Discri­min­ation disturbed
Apprec­iation of size + texture Disturbed
Perceptual Rivalry
Altered Optokinetc nystagmus
Perc­eptual Rivalry: When presented with two images, instead of them being superi­mposed, the images appear separately
Opto­kinetic nystag­mus: Following an object when stationary (larger visual field, occulo­motor response and directs image onto the retina, compared to small moving visual objects, directs image onto fovea in smooth pursuit)

Parietal Lobe Lesions (RIGHT & LEFT)

RIGHT
LEFT
Anosog­nosia - no longer aware of opposite side
Confusion of right and left limb
Dyspraxia - loss of acquired skills
Finger agnosia
Distur­bance of Geographic Memory
Acalculia
 
Agraphia
 
Wernickes dysphagia
Werk­nicke's dyspha­gia- loss of produc­tio­n/c­omp­reh­ension of spoken &/or written language (acquired)

Temporal Lobe functional areas:

Unicinate fasciculus (connects uncus to orbital frontal cortex)
Hippoc­ampus
Uncus
Inferior longit­udinal fasciculus (to visual associ­ation areas)
Motor fibres entering cerebral peduncles

Temporal Lobe Lesions

Epileptic - complex partial seizures "­on/­off­"
Complex Autono­misms :
Lipping
Sucking
Kissing
Repeated fiddling with clothing
Walkin­g/d­riving then "­waking up"
Prod­rom­es:
Visual­/au­dit­ory­/sm­ell­s/taste halluc­ina­tions
Unpleasant visceral sensations
"­Som­ething awful is about to happen­"
Deja vu
Jamais vu
Deja vu:- described as a strong sensation that a current event has happen­ed/­occ­urred before
Jamais vu: - opposite to deja vu. Something that has happened in a person's life but they have the feeling it happened for the first time.
 

Comments

great cheat sheet. quick question: do you know how to delete/erase/remove DRAFT cheat sheets. i.e. sheet that I dont want to publish and want to remove them from my DRAFT sheets.

Thank you!

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