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Something that is required as a prior condition for something else to happen.
Indivi­dual: Increased ability to afford health­care, food, shelter, education. Access to these basic resources improves all dimensions of H&WB.
Govern­ment: Increased ability to provide public healthcare systems, public education, and infras­tru­cture.
Adequate access to nutritious foods is required for the efficient functi­oning of most systems in the human body, making it a vital requir­ement for health, partic­ularly physical.
Shelter is a place that provides protection from bad weather or danger. It is considered a basic human right and is linked to a range of improved health outcomes.
Often seen as one of the keys to improving the health of indivi­duals and commun­ities. Educated indivi­duals generally experience higher levels of H&WB in all aspects.
Peace generally refers to a time where there is no conflict or war. During times of conflict and war, indivi­duals are at greater risk of physical injury and death, access to resources can be limited due to destru­ction in commun­ities.
Social justice
Refers to the equal distri­bution of resources and opport­uni­ties.
The quality of being fair and impartial.
Sustai­nable resources
The H&WB of current and future genera­tions is dependant on the ongoing availa­bility of the resources we rely on in everyday life. The ability to have access to these resources allows indivi­duals to attend school, sustain employment and recrea­tional activi­ties.


Health and Wellbeing
Overall state of a person's physical, mental, emotional, social and spiritual being
A subjective concept related to personal experience of a disease
Physical H&WB
Social H&WB
Physical health relates to the efficient functi­oning of the body and its systems.
How indivi­duals interact with others and within the community. Being able to maintain positive and meaningful connec­tions.
Emotional H&WB
Mental H&WB
Relates to the ability to express feelings in a positive way. The ability to display resilience and positive management and expression of emotional actions and reactions
The current state of wellbeing related to the mind and brain. The ability to think and process inform­ation and wellness of the mind rather than illness.
Spiritual H&WB
Relates to ideas, values, beliefs and ethics. A guiding sense of meaning and value and a feeling of belonging.


Optimal H&WB
Optimal health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-b­eing. Promote healthy behaviors by focusing on a holistic approach to achieving your best health outcome.
Individual benefits
National benefits
When an individual is experi­encing optimal H&WB they are able to partic­ipate effect­ively in daily life and produc­tively complete their chosen activi­ties.
A country that experi­ences a high overall level of H&WB will see an increase in both social and economical benefits, such as greater average incomes and greater community partic­ipa­tion.
Global benefits
Countries experi­encing optimal H&WB reduce health risks to other countries, such as a reduction in spread of disease across borders, increase in trade opport­unities and greater progress in achieving the global sustai­nable develo­pment goals.


Constantly changing. Changes can occur quickly in response to a range of factors, like illness, injury, or relati­onship breakdown. H&WB can improve in a short period of time with medica­tion.
Influenced by, or based on personal beliefs, feelings or opinions. It is the way an individual perceives their own H&WB. Two different people with similar physical H&WB levels can have quite different perspe­ctives of their own H&WB.
Interr­ela­tio­nships between the dimensions of H&WB
The dimensions of H&WB are all interr­elated in the way that they may influence and impact each other.


Health indicators
Self-a­ssessed health status
Standard statistics that are used to measure and compare health status (e.g. life expect­ancy, mortality rates, morbidity rates)
a measure based on a person's own opinion about how they feel about their health and wellbeing, their state of mind and their life in general. It is commonly sourced from population surveys.
Life expectancy
health adjusted life expectancy (HALE)
An indication of how long a person can expect to live; it is the number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age if death rates do not change.' (AIHW, 2008)
a measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality.
infant mortality rate
refers to death, partic­ularly at a population level
measures the rate of deaths of infants between birth and their first birthday, usually expressed per 1000 live births
under- five mortality rate (U5MR)
maternal mortality ratio
measures the number of children that die before their fifth birthday, usually expressed per 1000 live births
the number of mothers who die as a result of pregnancy or childbirth per 100 000 live births.
morbidity rate
Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.' (AIHW, 2008)
measure of how many people suffer from a particular condition during a given period of time
the number or rate of new cases of a diseas­e/c­ond­ition during a given period of time
the number or proportion of cases of a particular disease or condition in a population at a given time period
burden of disease
Years of life lost (YLL)
a measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specif­ically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disabi­lity. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the DALY (VCAA). one DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death (YLL) and time spent with illness, disease or injury (YLD)
a measure of how many years of expected life are lost due to premature death
years lost to disability (YLD)
Disability adjusted life year
a measure of how many healthy years of life are lost due to illness, injury or disabi­lity.
A measure of burden of disease. One daly = one year of healthy life lost due to premature death (yll) and time spent with illness, disease or injury. Yld


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