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TCA cycle2 Cheat Sheet by


ATP count

How to count

Each tca cycle produces:

Two molecules of carbon dioxide.
Three molecules of NADH.
Three hydrogen ions.
One molecule of FADHâ‚‚
One molecule of GTP.


The two carbon atoms that enter the cycle as the acetyl group.
the enzymes of the citric acid cycle are physically associated with one another.
Substrate channe­ling; Metabolon
The cycle operates only under aerobic condit­ions, although oxygen does not partic­ipate directly in the cycle.
The pyruvate dehydr­ogenase complex is regulated allost­eri­cally and by reversible phosph­ory­lation

energy charge

TCA cycle is controlled at several points


TCA cycle-­Source of Biosyn­thetic Precursors


The citric acid cycle must be capable of being rapidly replen­ished if any are drawn off for biosyn­thesis, to allow the cycle to function
acetyl CoA can not convert into oxaloa­cetate or any other citric acid cycle interm­ediate
oxaloa­cetate can be formed by the carbox­ylation of pyruvate, a crucial role in glucon­eog­enesis, which is active only in the presence of acetyl CoA

Pyruvate to Oxaloa­cetate



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