n = “Carbon + Water”
Carbohydrates = saccharides = sugar = -ose
1. Source of energy
2. Building blocks
3. Molecular interactions
Monosaccharides Can be divided in two big group
1. Aldose(aldehyde group -CHO) contain the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom.
2. Ketose(ketone group -CO-) contain the carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms.
Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O.
General formula: (CH
cis: same side, trans: opposite
Glycogen and Starch Are Mobilizable stores of Glucose
Formed by linkage of monosaccharides
ex. Maltose, a Disaccharide: Two molecules of glucose are linked by an alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond to form the disaccharide maltose.
Glycoproteins are proteins covalently modified with a small amount of carbohydrate groups.
Many cell membranes proteins are glycoproteins, which involve cell adhesion and the binding of sperm to egg.
Many extracellular proteins are also glycoproteins, including proteins in the serum.
The diversity and complexity of the carbohydrate units of glycoproteins suggest that they are functionally important.
Carbohydrates are information-rich molecules that guide many biological processes.
The diverse carbohydrate structures displayed on cell surfaces are well suited to serve as sites of interaction between cells and their environments.