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Carbohydrates Cheat Sheet by

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Carboh­ydrates

Suga­rs-­>Po­lys­acc­har­ides
Carboh­ydrate, (C-HO)n = “Carbon + Water”
Carboh­ydrates = saccha­rides = sugar = -ose
1. Source of energy
2. Building blocks
3. Molecular intera­ctions
Mono­sac­cha­rides Can be divided in two big group
1. Aldose­(al­dehyde group -CHO) contain the carbonyl group bonded to at least one hydrogen atom.
2. Ketose­(ketone group -CO-) contain the carbonyl group bonded to two carbon atoms.
Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorp­orate a carbonyl functional group, C=O.

Common monosa­cch­arides

General formula: (CH2­O)n
D-Ribose
D-Deox­yribose
D-Glucose
D-Mannose
D-Gala­ctose
D-Fructose
 

Glucose

alpha-­Glucose
cis isomer
beta-G­lucose
trans isomer
cis: same side, trans: opposite

Common Disacc­harides

Sucrose
glucos­e-f­ructose
Lactose
galact­ose­-gl­ucose
Maltose
glucos­e-g­lucose
Glycogen and Starch Are Mobili­zable stores of Glucose

Complex Carboh­ydrates

Formed by linkage of monosa­cch­arides
ex. Maltose, a Disacc­haride: Two molecules of glucose are linked by an alpha-­1,4­-gl­yco­sidic bond to form the disacc­haride maltose.
 

Glycop­roteins

Glycop­roteins are proteins covalently modified with a small amount of carboh­ydrate groups.
Many cell membranes proteins are glycop­rot­eins, which involve cell adhesion and the binding of sperm to egg.
Many extrac­ellular proteins are also glycop­rot­eins, including proteins in the serum.
The diversity and complexity of the carboh­ydrate units of glycop­roteins suggest that they are functi­onally important.
Carboh­ydrates are inform­ati­on-rich molecules that guide many biological processes.
The diverse carboh­ydrate structures displayed on cell surfaces are well suited to serve as sites of intera­ction between cells and their enviro­nments.
 

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