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Metabolism & ATP Cheat Sheet by



Metabolism is the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy.
Breaking down
Building up
Metabolism of Carboh­ydrates
Glycolysis and Glucon­eog­enesis
Citric Acid Cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle)
Oxidative Phosph­ory­lation


ATP is the nucleotide known in bioche­mistry as the "­mol­ecular curren­cy" of intrac­ellular energy transfer. It provides energy for processes that build molecules and tissues, to transport molecules across the cell membrane, to facilitate enzyme activi­ties, to facilitate motion, and is the product of a few steps in metabo­lism.
ATP is able to store and transport chemical energy within cells, and also plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids.
ATP (Adenosine tripho­sphate) to become ADP (Adenosine diphos­phate) – one phosphate loss; then can be back to ATP again.
Enzyme control the breaking and making of ATP

ATP structure

ATP hydrolysis

Happens in Glycol­ysis, is how the cell breaks down ATP the use its energy.
Hydro - is greek for "­wat­er"
Lysis - is greek for "to split"
in ATP hydrol­ysis, water is used to split apart ATP to create ADP to get ENERGY.
ATP hydrolysis happens after the bulk of the energy is made in oxidative phosph­ory­lation too!

Where steps happen


ATP + H2O -> ADP + inorganic phosphate
Energy is genera­ted­/re­leased by this reacti­on(30.5 kJ/mol)


y subunit linked alpha and beta

y subunit linked alpha and beta

Each 360-degree rotation of the γ subunit leads to the synthesis and release of three molecules of ATP.
In the "­ope­n" state, ADP and phosphate enter the active site;
in the "­loo­se" state.The protein closes up around the molecules and binds them loosely.
In the "­tig­ht" state, the enzyme changes shape again and forces these molecules together to form ATP molecule.
Alpha subunit is a regulatory subunit.

Bingin­g-c­hange mechanism for ATP synthase

Stoich­iometry of ATP synthesis

Movement across mitoch­ondrial membrane



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