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Object Oriented Progra­mming

What is OOP?
Object­-or­iented progra­mming (OOP) is a progra­mming language model organized around objects rather than "­act­ion­s" and data rather than logic. Histor­ically, a program has been viewed as a logical procedure that takes input data, processes it, and produces output data.
Basic Concepts of OOP?
Abstra­ction, Encaps­ula­tion, Inheri­tance, Polymo­rphism
What is a class?
A set or category of things having some property or attribute in common and differ­ent­iated from others by kind, type, or quality.
What is an object?
Objects are created from classes. Objects have states and behaviors.
What is polymo­rphism?
The ability to process objects differ­ently depending on their data type or class. More specif­ically, it is the ability to redefine methods for derived classes. A polymo­rphic type is a type whose operations can also be applied to values of some other type.
What is inheri­tance?
When an object or class is based on another object or class, using the same implem­ent­ation to maintain the same behavior. Helps the coder: mechanism for code reuse and to allow indepe­ndent extensions of the original software via public classes and interf­aces.
What is encaps­ula­tion?
The packing of data and functions into a single component. (Using classes). Allows selective hiding of properties and methods in an object by building an impene­trable wall to protect the code from accidental corrup­tion.
What is constr­uctor?
Used to initialize private fields of the class while creating an instance for the class. A default constr­uctor will be created by the compiler if you don't create one.
A method which is automa­tically invoked when the object is destroyed. Main purpose is to free the resources (memory alloca­tions, open files or sockets, etc.)
Abstract class?
It may or may not include abstract methods. Cannot be instan­tiated, but they can be subcla­ssed.

Data Structures

Print all the array elements one by one.
Adds an element at the given index
Deletes an element at the given index
Searches an element using the given index or by the value
Updates an element at the given index
Each link of a linked list can store a data called an element
Each link of a linked list contains a link to the next link called Next
A linked list contains the connection link to the first link called First
What is a binary search tree?
A binary tree with a special provision where a node's left child must have a value less than its parent's value and node's right child must have value greater than it's parent value.
What is tree traversal?
A process to visit all the nodes of a tree. 3 ways: In-order traversal, pre-order traversal, post-order traversal.


What is a recursive function?
one which calls itself, directly or calls a function that in turn calls it. Every recursive function follows the recursive proper­ties- base case where functions stop calling itself and progre­ssive approach where the functions tries to meet the base case in each iteration.
What is selection sort?
Divides the data set into two sub-lists: sorted and unsorted. Then it selects the minimum element from unsorted sub-list and places it into the sorted list.
What happens in insertion sort?
Divides the list into two sub-lists, sorted and unsorted. It takes one element at time and finds it an approp­riate location in the sorted sub-list and inserts there.
How is insertion sort and selection sort different?
Insertion: works on the current element in hand and places it in the sorted array at the approp­riate location mainta­ining the properties of insertion sort. Whereas, selection sort searches the minimum from the unsorted sub-list and replaces it with the current element in hand.
What is recursive backtr­acking?
Backtr­acking reduces the # of possible value assign­ments that we consider, because it never considers invalid assign­ments.

Cyber Security + Balbix

Which companies are in cyber security?
root9B, Herjavec Group, IBM, Checkpoint Software
What is cyber security?
Protecting inform­ation and systems from major cyber threats.
Exigence? News? Why?
Computer and computer networks are involved in almost every aspect of our lives. Anything connected to the internet is at risk of getting hacked. Internet of Things is an innovation that is really common and useful nowadays. However, it is another area for hackers to penetrate. Internet of Things brings about another vulner­abi­lity. This is why cyber security today is so important. We have so much technology that is connected to the internet.


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