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Human Rights Cheat Sheet by

Vulnerable groups, UN provisions, Indian const. provisions, CRI, LGBTQ+, crimial justice system in HR.

Human right violations of women

birth & child - infant­icides, neglect of nutriton needs, edu, healthcare
teen & adult - underage marriages, unwanted pregna­ncies, domestic violence, sexual abuse, marital rape, honor killings
Gender based violence - dowry deaths, cruelt­y/rape by family/in laws, forced abortions, intimate partner violence (IPV)

Stats -
27% girls in India - underage marriage and pregnancy (2015-16 UNICEF)
30% of indian women - domestic violence at least once by age of 15, 4% pregnant women - spousal violence (2012 UNICEF)

Vulnerable groups

Women and girls
Migrant workers
Displaced people
Stateless people
HIV and AIDS victims
Elderly people
Disabled people
National minorities
Indigenous people
LGBTQIA+ people

UN on children's rights

UICEF (11 dec 1946- permanent in 1953)
to provide emergency food and healthcare to children and mothers in countries that had been devastated by World War II
UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (Nov. 20th 1989)
civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children
right to survival
right to protection
right to develo­pment
right to freedom of thought and expression

LGBTQ community

section 377 in IPC
enforced in 1861 by british, crimin­alized homose­xuality
sec 377 violated article 14, 15, 21 of Indian consti­tution
In 2009, delhi high court decleared art 377 as uncons­iti­uti­onal, this appeal was overturned by indian supreme court in 2013
decrim­ina­lised on 6th sept 2018
UNHRC in 2011- human rights apply equally to all regardless of their sexual orient­ation or gender identity, appointed special rapporter on HR of LGBTQ+

UN provisions (no violence against women)

June 1993 Vienna Declar­ation and Program of Action (VDPA)
Declar­ation on the Elimin­ation of Violence Against Women (20th December 1993)
Beijing Declar­ation and Platform for Action (1995)
2030 Agenda for Sustai­nable Develo­pment (UN, 2015)

Criminal justice system in HR

The court serves to protect human rights in three key areas:
During invest­igation
arrest - 1st step of criminal justice system, guidelines issued by apex court must be followed
-evidence is admissable wrt legal procedure
-accused is informed of their rights (to remain silent, to an attorney)
-accused is not subjected to any form of torture or inhumane treatment

custodial torture- common police practice in India
During trials
protect - liberty, speedy trial
-accused receives a fair and impartial trial accused receives a fair and impartial trial
-opportunity to present evidence and cross examine witnesses
-rights of the victim are protected + partic­ipate in the trial procee­dings

Bail is the rule, jail is an exception - rule of criminal justice system (CrPC), should not be subjected to pre-trial detention or incarc­eration unless necessary (chances of accused to flee from justice, tamper with evidence, or commit further crimes)
While serving sentence
Issues: prison overcr­owding and the lack of basic amenities in prisons, tortur­e/i­nhuman treatments

apex court - issued several guidelines to author­ities to safeguard rights of prisoners

Indian const. provisions for children

Art. 15(3)
special provisions for children
Art. 21A, 45, 51A, 86th consti­tut­ional amendment
free and compulsory education to all children

21A, 86th const - children btw 6 to 14yrs

45 - before age of 6

51A - duty of parent­/gu­ardian to provide edu for 6 to 14 yrs
Art. 23
prohibits traffi­cking of human beings including children
Art. 24
no child below 14 years can work in any hazardous occupation
Art. 39 A & F
state policies are directed towards securing the tender age of children

Indian const. provisions for women

Art. 15(3)
allows the state to make special provisions for women and children
Art. 39, The Equal remune­ration Act 1976
equal pay to women for equal work
Art. 44
uniform civil code- to improve the condition of women across all religion
Dowry Prevention Act, Protection of women from domestic violence Act 2005

CRI - Children rights index

evaluates the implem­ent­ation of children's rights as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in different countries
right to health
key indica­tors: mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality rate, risks of HIV, lack of water, inadeq­ueate nutrition and sanitation
right to education
(37% out of world - 287M) of indian population is illiterate
gender inequa­lity, no edu due to child labour, disc based on caste, SES
right to life
death due to poverty, female infant­icides, post birth mortal­ities (families kill the babies after they're born)
right to protection
child marriage, labour, sexual exploi­tat­ion­/abuse, female genital mutila­tion, traffi­cking
enabling enviro­nment for child rights
no disc, enabling legisl­ation, child partic­ipa­tion, State-­civil society cooper­ation for child rights partic­ipation


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