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AP Psychology Ch.1-5 Cheat Sheet by

AP Psychology cheat sheet for chapters 1-5

People

Albert Bandura
Added a cognitive slant to behavi­orism by resear­ching violence and aggression
B.F. Skinner
Believed that internal mental events could only be studied scient­ifi­cally or not at all; Skinner box
Carl Rogers
Developed person­-ce­ntered therapy
Charles Darwin
Theory of natural selection and said desirable traits are passed on
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
Identified specia­lized types of cells and that individual cells are more sensitive to complex stimuli
Ernest Hilgard
Hypnosis causes dissoc­iation in consci­ousness
Gustav Fechner
Published research on the absolute threshold of humans
Herman von Helmholtz
Created place theory
J. Allan Hobson
Said dreams are side effects of neural activation
John Watson
Founder of behavi­orism
Leta Stetter Hollin­gworth
Focused on children with high IQs
Linda Bastoshuk
Leading authority in taste research
Margaret Washburn
Second female president of APA and wrote "The Animal Mind" which helped behavi­orism emerge
Mary Calkins
First female president of APA and founded 1/12 psychology labs in the U.S.
Max Wertheimer
Discovered phi phenomenon
Neal Miller
Conducted studies to show that animals could be used for testing
Robert Rosenthal
Said experi­mental bias could lead to influence on subject's behavior
Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga
Studied split-­brain to see what makes the hemisp­heres unique
Ronald Melzack and Patrick Wall
Gate-c­ontrol theory
Rosalind Cartwright
We tend to dream about problems in our lives
Sigmund Freud
Founder of psycho­ana­lysis and coined the term uncons­cious; Said we dream to fulfill tasks
Stanley Hall
Created APA and first psycho­logical research lab at Johns Hopkins
Wilhelm Wundt
German professor who created a campaign promoting psychology to become its own field of study
William James
Founder of functi­ona­lism; said we have a stream of consci­ousness in which ideas flow

Genetics

Chromosome
Strands of DNA that carry genetic inform­ation
Dominant gene
Gene expressed in a hetero­zygous condition
Genes
DNA segments that serve as key functional units in genetic transfer
Genetic Mapping
Determines location and sequence of specific genes
Genotype
One's genetic makeup
Fraternal Twins
Two eggs fertilized by different sperm cells
Hetero­zygous
One dominant and one recessive allele
Homozygous
Both alleles are either dominant or recessive
Identical Twins
Results from a zygote splitting
Natural Selection
Favorable genes will be passed through genera­tions
Phenotype
Expression of one's genotype
Polygenic Traits
Charac­ter­istic influenced by more than one gene
Recessive Gene
Gene not expressed in a hetero­zygous condition
Zygote
Single cell formed by union of sperm and egg

Body Scans/­Tests

Electrical Stimul­ation
Sends weak electrical currents into brain structure to activate it
Electr­oen­cep­hal­ograph (EEG)
Monitors electrical activity in brain over time with electrodes attached to scalp
Electr­omy­ograph
Records muscular activity
Electr­ooc­ulo­graph
Records eye movement
Transc­ranial Magnetic Stimul­ation
Enhances or depresses parts of the brain

Parts of Brain

Brain Plasticity
Brain is more plastic than assumed
Broca's Area
Controls the production of speech
Cerebral Cortex
Folded outer layer of cerebrum
Cerebral Hemisp­heres
Left and right halves of cerebrum
Corpus Callosum
Connects both cerebral hemisp­heres
Forebrain
emotional and complex thought; Largest and most complex part of brain
Frontal Lobe
Largest human lobe; controls muscle movement
Hindbrain
vital functions; Includes cerebe­llum, medulla, and pons
Left Hemisphere
Verbal proces­sing, language, speech, reading, writing, sequential
Midbrain
sensory functions; Part of brain stem between hindbrain and forebrain
Occipital Lobe
Location of visual processing
Parietal Lobe
Registers sense of touch, phantom limb
Right Hemisphere
Nonverbal proces­sing, spatial, musical, visual recogn­ition, parallel
Temporal Lobe
Controls auditory processing along with speech and language compre­hension
Wernicke's Area
Controls the compre­hension of a language

Eye Diagram

Ear Parts

Amplitude
Loudness
Basilar Membrane
Runs through center of cochlea and has auditory receptors
Cochlea
Coiled tunnel filled with fluid that has hearing receptors
External ear (pinna)
Collects sound
Ossicles
Hammer, anvil, stirrup (tinniest bones in body)
Purity
Timbre
Semici­rcular Canals
Passage inside ear that maintains equili­brium
Wavelength
Pitch

Ear Diagram

 

Types of psycho­logsts

Psycho­logist
Dedicated to invest­igating human behavior in a scientific way
Clinical Psycho­logist
Studies and deals with mentally ill patients
Psychi­atrist
Diagnoses and treats psycho­logical disorders
Counseling Psycho­logist
Deals with people's every day problems of modern severity

Research Methods

Double­-blind
Experi­menters nor subjects know the hypothesis
Case Study
In-depth invest­igation on an individual or topic
Experiment
Manipu­lating a variable under controlled conditions and. observing changes in a second variable
Natura­listic Observ­ation
Conducted be observing others in their natural enviro­nment
Quasi-­Exp­eriment
Indivi­duals chosen for a study have an equal chance of being in the control or experi­mental group

APA Guidelines

Anonymity
Not collecting a person's name during a study
Confid­ent­iality
Not releasing any specific response sources
Debriefing
Subjects are told the truth of an experiment after being lied to
Informed Consent
Allowing partic­ipants to choose whether or not they want to be in the study after being told about it
Random Assignment
Assigning indivi­duals from the sample into the experi­mental or control group without bias
Random Sample
Sample of people chosen for an experiment without bias
Random Selection
Choosing members of a population with no bias that accurately represents that population

Ways to Represent Data

Correl­ation
Relati­onship between two variables
Correl­ation Coeffi­cient
Degree of relati­onship between two variables (-1 to 1)
Frequency Distri­bution
Indicates how often an observ­ation or number occurs
Histogram
A bar graph
Mean
The average of all numbers in a data set
Median
The number that lies in the middle of a data set when ordered from least to greatest
Mode
The number that appears most often in a set of data
Normal Curve
Bell-s­haped curve where the average score lies in the middle
Range
Largest number- smallest number
Scatte­rplot
Graph of points showing relati­onship between the x and y axis
Standard Deviation
Average distance from the mean in a data set
Statis­tical Signif­icance
Probab­ility that data collected from an experiment are due to chance

Nervous System Subsystems

Autonomic Nervous System
Nerves connecting to heart, blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glandsd
Central Nervous System
Brain and spinal cord
Parasy­mpa­thetic Nervous System
Autonomic nervous system subset that conserves resources (rest and digest)
Peripheral Nervous System
Nerves that lie outside CNS
Somatic Nervous System
Nerves that connect voluntary skeletal muscles to sensory receptors
Sympat­hetic Nervous System
Autonomic nervous system subset that deals with emergency body resources (fight or flight)

Nervous System Subsets Diagram

Glands

Adrenal
Salt and carbs metabolism
Gonads
Sex hormones
Pancreas
Sugar metabolism (insulin)
Pituitary
Master gland; secretes growth hormones
Thyroid
Metabolic rate

Brain Diagram

Brain Diagram

Eye Parts

Cones
Visual receptors that help in daylight and seeing colors
Blind Spot
Hole in retina where nerve fibers exit; image that falls on it isn't visible
Feature Detectors
Neurons that respond to very specific features of more complex stimuli
Fovea
Tiny spots in center of retina where visual acuity is at its greatest; only has cones
Lens
Transp­arent eye structure that focuses light rays falling on retine
Optic Chiasm
Where optic nerves cross
Optic Disk
Hole in retina where optic nerves exit eye
Optic Nerve
Axons that connect eye to brain
Photor­eceptor
Rods and cones
Pupil
Opening in iris that allows light to pass to back of eyes
Retina
Neural tissue at back of eye that absorbs light, processes images, and sends visual inform­ation to brain
Rods
Visual receptors that help with night vision, peripheral vision, and black and white images

Stages of Sleep

1
Lightest stage; theta waves; 4-7 waves on screen; 1-7 minutes
2
Slow waves; all waves; spikes on screen; slower heart rate; 10-25 minutes
3&4
Deep and slow waves; delta waves; slow/long waves; longest NREM stage
REM
Waves similar to awake ones; beta waves; dreaming; rapid eye movement; fast breathing; no control
 

Approaches

Behavioral
Study of observable reactions
Biological
Behavior controlled by physio­logical aspects
Cognitive
The way that the world is viewed determines one's behavior
Cross-­cul­tural
Focuses on filling the data gap between white males and minorities
Eclectic
Treatment approach varies on the client's problem
Evolut­ionary
Views behaviors as human adaption
Functi­onalism
Focuses on purpose of consci­ousness
Humanistic
Emphasizes human qualities and potential
Psycho­ana­lytic
Addresses internal motiva­tions and unscon­cious thoughts that affect one's behavior
Struct­ualism
Analyzes consci­ousness in elements and their relati­onship

Parts of an Experiment

Confou­nding Variable
Two indepe­ndent variables in an experiment
Control Group
Group that does not receive special treatment
Dependent Variable
Variable affected when the indepe­ndent variable is altered
Experi­mental Group
Group that receives special treatment
Extraneous Variable
Outside variable that influences the dependent variable
Hypothesis
Prediction of what the data will prove at the end of an experiment
Indepe­ndent Variable
Event or condition manipu­lated in order to evoke change in the dependent variable
Operat­ional Definition
Specific definition of the measures of the variables in an experiment
Subjec­t/P­art­icipant
People or animals observed in a study

Neuron Parts

Action Potential
Shift in neuron's electrical charge that travels along axon
Afferent Nerve Fibers
Carry inform­ation inwa­rds to CNS
Axon
Long fiber that transmits signals way from soma to other cells
Dendrites
Receives inform­ation
Efferent Nerve Fibers
Carry inform­ation outw­ards from CNS
Glia
Provide support for neurons
Mylein Sheath
Insulates axons to speed up signal transm­issions
Resting Potential
Neuron is stable, negatively charged, and inactive
Reuptake
Neurot­ran­smi­tters sponged from synaptic cleft by presyn­aptic membrane
Soma
Cell body which contains the nucleus and main cell parts
Synapse/ Synaptic Cleft
Gap between terminal button of a neuron and cell membrane of another
Terminal Buttons
Secretes chemicals

Neuron Image

Drugs

Alcohol
Beverages containing ethyl alcohol (ex. vodka, rum, beer, whiskey)
Cannabis
Plant that makes weed, THC, and hashish
MDMA
Related to amphet­amines, halluc­ino­gens, and mescaline (ex. adulte­rants, ecstasy, caffeine, heroine)
Narcotics
Opiates; relieve pain (Ex. opium, heroin, codeine, oxycodone)
Opiates
Narcotics; relieve pain (ex. same as narcotics)
Psycho­active Drugs
Modify mental, emotional, and behavioral functions
Sedatives
Sleep-­ind­ucting drugs that decrease CNS function and behaviors (ex. sleeping pills)
Stimulants
Increase CNS activation and behaviors (Ex. Cocaine, meth, adderal)

Perception Phenom­enons

Absolute Threshold
Minimum stimulus that can be detected
Additive Color Mixing
More light in a mix than exists in any one light
Afterimage
Visual image that persists after stimulus is removed
Binocular Depth Cues
Clues about distance based on differing views of two eyes
Conver­gence
Eyes go inward when looking at a close-up object
Dark Adaptation
Eyes become sensitive to light with little light present
Feature Analysis
Detecting specifics in a visual input and putting them in a more complex form
Habitu­ation
Tendency to have a decreased response to something
Impossible Figures
Objects that can be repres­ented in 2D but not 3D
Inatte­ntional Bias
Failure to see visible things because attention is focused
Just Noticeable Difference
Smallest difference in stimulus intensity that can be detected
Light Adaptation
Eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumi­nation
Monocular Depth Cues
Ability to judge distance with one eye
Motion Parallex
Closer things more quicker than further items
Parallel Processing
Processing many aspects of a problem simult­ane­ously
Perceptual Constancy
Tendency to experience a stable perception when something is changing
Perceptual Set
Readiness to perceive a certain stimuli in a particular way
Phi Phenomenon
Moving illusion done by presenting visual stimuli in rapid order
Retina Disparity
Objects within 25ft look slightly different if one eye is covered
Reversible Figure
Drawing that can go back and forth with interp­ret­ations
Sensory Adaptation
Gradual decline in sensit­ivity because of prolonged stimul­ation
Subliminal Perception
Regist­ration of sensory input without being aware
Subtra­ctive Color Mixing
Removing wavele­ngths to make a color darker

Sleep Phenom­enons/ Disorders

Insomnia
Chronic problems getting adequate sleep
Latent Content
Hidden meaning of a dream
Lucid Dreams
People thinking clearly while in a dream and walking through life
Manifest Content
Plot of a dream, the literal plot
Night Terrors
Abrupt awakenings from NREM with panic
Nightmares
Anxiet­y-a­rousing dreams that lead to people waking up from REM
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Acting out while one is asleep
Sleep Apnea
Reflexive gasps for air that wake people up
Somnam­bulism
Sleepw­alking
       
 

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