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AP Psychology Ch. 11,12,14 Cheat Sheet by

Cheatsheet for chapters 11,12, and 14 of AP Psychology


Abraham Maslow
Analyzed how motives affect us
Albert Bandura
Conducted research on person­ality, behavior therapy, and aggression
Albert Ellis
Came up with catast­rophic thinking and said it leads to proble­matic emotional reactions
Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess
Said nature and nurture affected a child's temper­ament
Alfred Adler
Studied individual psycho­logy, striving for superi­ority, and compen­sation
Carl Jung
Coined archet­ypes, introv­ersion, extrov­ersion, person­al/­col­lective uncons­cious
Carl Rogers
Founder of humanism that emphasized personal growth
Erik Erikson
Said people evolve through 8 stages marked by a fundam­ental question
Hans Eysenck
Said all aspects of person­ality emerge from extrov­ersion, neurot­icism, and psycho­ticism
Hans Selye
First to identify and name stress in 1940s
Harry Harlow
Conducted experiment of monkeys to show relati­onship between caregiving and compan­ionship
Janice Kiecol­t-G­laser
Related stress to suppressed immune activity
Jean Piaget
Theory about how kids view the world and proposed four stages of cognitive develo­pment
Jerome Kagan
Focused on childhood fear and came up with inhibited (shy) and uninhi­bited (bold) person­alities
Lev Vygotsky
Tested the effects of culture and commun­ication on develo­pment
Lawrence Kohlberg
Focused on moral develo­pment and made the moral develo­pment of the sick wife and stealing
Martin Seligman
Came up with the theory of learned helple­ssness
Mary Ainsworth
Studied attachment styles between child and caregiver; experiment on attachment styles
Meyer Friedmpan and Ray Rosenman
Found the positive correl­ation between heart conditions and Type A person­ality
Richard Lazarus
Made a scale to handle every day hassle stress
Robert McCrae and Paul Costa
Came up with the big five person­alities
Robin DiMatteo
Said people delay seeing a specialist because they're afraid of it being nothing, downplay symptoms, don't want to bother a doctor, or are too busy
Shelley Taylor
Concluded that females have a "tend and befrie­nd" response rather than "­fight of flight­"
Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe
Developed the Social Readju­stment Rating Scale to measure life changes as forms of stress
Walter Cannon
One of the first people to describe fight or flight
Walter Mischel
Chief contri­butor to person­ality theory and focused on situat­ional factors and behavior

Person­ality Tests

Minnesota Multip­hasic
Tests for abnormal person­ality styles
Person­ality Inventory
Self-r­eport questi­onnaire that asks about a person's life to make genera­liz­ations about them
Projective Tests
Partic­ipants respond to vague stimuli that may reveal things about them
Rorschach Test
Partic­ipants shown vague inkblots that allow psycho­logists to trace their train of thought
Self Report Invetories
Person­ality tests that ask questions about one's behavior


Choosing between two attrac­tiv­e/d­esi­rable options
Choosing an option that has both positive and negative attributes
Choosing between two unattr­act­ive­/un­des­irable options

Erik Erickson's Theory of Develo­pment

1 (Hope)
Trust vs. Mistrust
0-18 months
2 (Will)
Freedom vs. Shame/­Doubt
1.5-3 years
3 (Purpose)
Initiative vs. Guilt
3-5 years
4 (Compe­tency)
Industry vs. Inferi­ority
5-13 years
5 (Fidelity)
Identity vs. Confusion
13-21 years
6 (Love)
Intimacy vs. Isolation
21-39 years
7 (Care)
Genera­tivity vs. Self Absorption
40-65 years
8 (Wisdom)
Integrity vs. Despair

Jean Piaget's Theory of Develo­pment

Object permanence establ­ished
0-24 months
Centration and egocen­trism establ­ished
2-7 years
Concrete Operat­ional
Decent­ration, revers­ibi­lity, and conser­vation establ­ished
7-11 years
Formal Operat­ional
Abstra­ction developed
11+ years

Kohlberg's Theory of Develo­pment

Punishment and naive reward
0-4 years
Conformity and authority
4-13 years
Post Conven­tional
Social contract and individual principles
13+ years

Big 5 Person­alities



Age of Viability
Age at which babies can survive if a premature birth were to happen; Currently 26-28 weeks
Embryonic Stage
Second stage of prenatal develo­pment; 2 weeks-8 weeks
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Problems associated with excessive drinking during pregnancy
Fetal Stage
Third stage of prenatal develo­pment; 2 months- birth
Germinal Stage
First phase of prenatal develo­pment; concep­tion- 2 weeks
Allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into fetus from mom and for waste to exit
Prenatal Period
Extends from conception to birth
External factors that can negatively affect a baby negatively
One celled organism formed by union of sperm and egg


Culturally constr­ucted distin­ctions between femininity and mascul­inity
Gender Differ­ences
Actual differ­ences between sexes in behavior and ability
Gender Roles
Expect­ations about what's approp­riate for each sex
Gender Stereo­types
Wildly help beliefs about male and female abilities, person­ality traits, and behaviors
First menstr­uation cycle
Primary Sex Charac­ter­istic
Structures needed for reprod­uction
Period of sexual maturation where one is able to reproduce
Pubescence Secondary
Secondary sex charac­ter­istics (ex. breasts)
Sex Charac­ter­istics
Physical or behavioral traits that indicate biological sex
First occurrence of ejacul­ation
Biolog­ically based categories of male and female


Selfless actions done for the sake of someone else
Thought forms with a universal meaning
Trying to overcome inferi­orities by developing one's abilities
Behavior is fully determined by enviro­nment
Incons­istency between person­ality and dispos­ition
Reciprocal Determ­inism
Internal mental events, external enviro­nment, and overt behaviors affect one another
Self-A­ctu­alizing Persons
People with except­ionally healthy person­alities with constant personal growth
Belief's about one's own nature, unique qualities, and typical behavior
One's beliefs about oneself and one's capabi­lities
Striving for Superi­ority
Universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges
Being equal to or above others

Responses to Stress

Behavior intended to harm someone either physically or mentally
Physical and emotional exhaus­tion, cynicism, and low self-e­fficacy brought on by work-r­elated stress
Release of emotional tension
Constr­uctive Coping
Healthful efforts made to cope with stress
Efforts made to master, reduce, or tolerate demands made by stress
Frustr­ati­on-­Agg­ression Hypothesis
States that there is a correl­ation between frustr­ation and aggression
Immune Response
Body's defensive reaction to invasion by foreign substances
Internet Addiction
Spending a lot of time on the internet and not being able to control it
Learned Helple­ssness
Behavior produced by exposure to unavoi­dable events
Psycho­somatic Diseases
Psychical illnesses caused by stress and other psycho­logical factors
Successful adaptation to stress­/trauma because of less negative outcomes


Never 100% happy, anxious with mom and drama without mom
Close bonds establ­ished between baby and caregiver
Difficult Temper­ament
Colic, upset babies, schedule not flexible at all; 10% of babies
Easy Temper­ament
Happy, flexible schedule for eating and sleeping; 40% of babies
Mixed Temper­ament
More than one temper­ament; 35% of babies
Happy with mom, drama without mom
Separation Anxiety
Distress caused to children when they're separated from someone they're attached to
Slow to Warm Up Temper­ament
Schedule not as flexible but not super hard to change; 15% of babies
One's mood, activity, and emotional reactivity


Cephal­ocaudel Trend
Head to foot develo­pment of motor skills
Cognitive Develo­pment
Transition in pattern of thinking for young people which includes reasoning, rememb­ering, and problem solving
Cohort Effects
Age group differ­ences occur when both genera­tions grow up in different time periods
Awareness that physical quantities remain constant despite change in shape
Sequence of age related changes from conception to death
Develo­pmental Norms
Typical age at which behaviors and abilities are displayed
Only unders­tanding things from one's POV
Inability to envision the reversal of an action
Develo­pment that shows the unfolding of DNA
Motor Develo­pment
Muscular coordi­nation develo­pment needed for physical activity
Object Permanence
Able to understand something exists even when it is not directly visible
Proxim­odistal Trend
Center­-ou­tward direction of motor develo­pment
Acquis­ition of norms and behaviors expected in society
Develo­pmental period where patterns of behaviors are shown and capacities are establ­ished
One's mood, activity, and emotional reactivity
Zone of Proximal Develo­pment
Questions answered with help- questions answered alone

Prenatal Develo­pment

Conscious/ Uncons­cious

Collective Uncons­cious
Latent memory from one's past which is shaped amongst a group of people (ex. 9/11)
Whatever one is aware of at a given time
Decision making part of person­ality that relies on reality
Instin­ctive component of person­ality that works with pleasure
Personal Uncons­cious
Oppressed memory which is unique to one person
Pleasure Principle
Wants immediate gratif­ica­tion; part of Id
Just beneath the surface of awareness that is easily retrie­vable
Reality Principle
Delay's Id's gratif­ication until proper outlets and locations are found
Moral part of person­ality that deals with rights and wrongs
Thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of precon­scious

Defense Mechanisms

Defense Mechanisms
Uncons­cious reaction to protect one from unpleasant emotions
Diverting feeling from original source to substitute target
Attrib­uting one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another
Making false but rational excuses to justify unacce­ptable behavior
Reaction Formation
Behaving in a way thats exactly the opposite of one's true feelings
Reversion to immature behaviors
Keeping distre­ssing thoughts in the uncons­cious
Channeling unacce­ptable uncons­cious impulses into ones accepted by society


Acute Stressors
Threat­ening events to one's well-being that last a short period of time with a clear endpoint
Catast­rophic Thinking
Tendency to become highly self-c­ritical when under stress
Chronic Stressors
Threat­ening, long-term stressors with no apparent end
Pursuit of a goal is interr­upted
General Adaptation Syndrome
Model of body's stress response; alarm, resist­ance, and exhaustion
Life Changes
Life altera­tions that require readju­stment
Expect­ation to behave a certain way
Circum­stances that threaten one's well-being and ability to cope

Inverted-U Hypothesis

Person­ality Types

Type A Person­ality
Compet­itive, impatient, angry, and hostile
Type B Person­ality
Relaxed, patient, and easygoing


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