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AP Psychology Ch.6-10 Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet by

Cheatsheet for chapter 6-10 of AP Psychology I accidentally put a block twice, sorry :(

People

Albert Bandura
Invest­igated observ­ational learning
Alfred Binet
Pioneered formula for mental age, later used in calcul­ating IQ
B.F. Skinner
Named "­operant condit­ion­" and showed that responses are repeated if conseq­uences are favorable; said enviro­nment governed language develo­pment
Charles Spearman
Creator of general intell­igence factor
David Buss
Found women like status and ambition while men like physical aspects
David Wechsler
Made IQ test for adults
Elizabeth Loftus
Researched memory and how misinf­orm­ation effect creates doubt in eye-wi­tness testim­onies
Ellen Winner
Profoundly gifted kids suffer more from emotio­nal­/social problems than moderately gifted kids
E.L. Thorndike
One of the first to research operant condit­ioning with a cat in a puzzle box
Francis Galton
Interested in link between intell­igence and heredity
Herman Ebbinghaus
First to study memory and used nonsense syllables on himself
George Miller
Short term memory; said we can hold 7+/-2 items in short term memory at a time
Howard Gardner
Theory of multiple intell­igences
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physio­logist who conducted the experiment with the salivation of dogs; found classical condit­ioning
John B. Watson
Founder of behavi­orism and conducted early study of genera­liz­ation
John Garcia
Conducted studies on taste aversion
Lewis Terman
Revised Binet's IQ test and made norms for American children
Noam Chomsky
Kids learn syntax and rules of language rather than memorize specific verbal responses
Robert Sternberg
Created successful intell­igence theory
Stanley Schnaster
Created two factor theory of emotion
Sue Savage Rumbaugh
Taught Kanzi how to speak with pictures and proved animals could understand language
Walter Cannon
Said thalamus sends signal to cortex and autonomic system simult­ane­ously
William James
Said emotion results from perception of autonomic arousal
William Masters and Virginia Johnson
Studied the sexual response cycle through observ­ation and experiment

Memory

Chunk
Group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
Cocktail Party Phenomenon
Focusing on one aspect of something and forgetting about the rest
Elabor­ation
Linking stimulus to other inform­ation while encoding
Encoding
Forming a memory code
Flashbulb Memories
Vivid and detailed memories of big events (ex. 9/11)
Long-Term Memory
Infinite capacity and can store inform­ation for long periods of time
Rehearsal
Repeating inform­ation aloud or thinking about it constantly to move to long term memory
Retrieval
Recover inform­ation from storage
Self-R­eferent Encoding
Deciding if and how inform­ation is relevant and worthy of keeping in memory
Sensory Memory
Inform­ation kept in its original sensory form for 1/4 of a second
Storage
Mainta­ining encoded inform­ation in memory over time
Short-Term Memory
Limited capacity (5-9 items) and can store unrehe­arsed inform­ation for 10-20 seconds

Memory Systems

Conceptual Memory
Classi­fic­ation system with many levels based on common properties
Connec­tionist Model/ Parallel Distri­buted Processes
Cognitive processes rely on neurons that resemble comput­ational networks
Declar­ative Memory
Handles factual inform­ation
Echoic Memory
Perfect brief (3-4 seconds) memory for sound
Episodic Memory
Chrono­logical recoll­ections of personal experi­ences
Explicit Memory
First thing we think of, normally memories or facts
Iconic Memory
A split-­second perfect photograph of a scene
Implicit Memory
Uninte­ntional memories
Nondec­lar­ative Memory
Handles memories for actions, skills, and emotional responses
Schemas
Organized cluster of knowledge about a particular topic
Semantic Memory
General knowledge not tied to time
Semantic Network
Nodes (concepts) joined by linking paths

Forgetting

Antero­grade Amnesia
Loss of memory after onset of amnesia
Decay Theory
Things are forgotten because memory fades over time
Forgetting Curve
Graph showing forget­fulness and retention
Hindsight Bias
Shaping one's interp­ret­ation of the past to fit how events turned out
Interf­erence Theory
People forget inform­ation because of compet­ition for other material
Misinf­orm­ation Effect
Recoll­ection of event altered by misleading post-event inform­ation
Proactive Intere­ference
Previously learned inform­ation interferes with retention of new inform­ation
Tip-of­-th­e-T­ongue Phenomenon
Tempor­arily not being able to remember something; feeling as if inform­ation is just out of reach
Repression
Keeping distre­ssing thoughts and feelings in the unconcious
Retroa­ctive Interf­erence
New inform­ation impairs retention of previously learned inform­ation
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory before onset of amnesia
Serial Position Effect
Tendency to forget the middle things of a list
Source Amnesia
Not being able to remember the source of inform­ation and thinking you just knew it
Source Monitoring Effect
Memory from one source is mistaken for coming from another source
 

Classical Condit­ioning

Classical Condit­ioning
Stimulus can evoke a response that was evoked by another stimulus
Condit­ioned Response
Learned reaction to condit­ioned stimulus
Condit­ioned Stimulus
Previously neutral stimulus that provokes new reaction
Higher­-Order Condit­ioning
Condit­ioned stimulus acts like an uncond­itioned stimulus
Instin­ctive Drift
Animal instincts interfere with condit­ioning process
Pavlonian Condit­ioning
Another name for classical condit­ioning used as a tribute to Pavlov
Stimulus Discri­min­ation
Only providing a response to one specific stimuli
Stimulus Genera­liz­ation
Reacting to two similar stimuli in the same way
Uncond­itioned Response
Natural reaction to a stimulus
Uncond­itioned Stimulus
Provokes a natural response

Operant Condit­ioning

Bobo Doll Experiment
Kids shown aggressive adults to see if they were aggressive (they were)
Condit­ioned Reinfo­rcers
Have reinfo­rcing qualities similar to primary reinfo­rcers
Escape Learning
Response developed to end undesi­rable event
Law of Effect
Positive behavioral conseq­uences lead to behaviors being repeated while punish­ments cause the extinction of that behavior
Negative Reinfo­rcement
Removing something undesi­rable in order for an event to be repeated
Operant Condit­ioning
Condit­ioning that involves conseq­uences
Positive Reinfo­rcement
Adding something desirable in order to an event to be repeated
Primary Reinfo­rcers
Reinfo­rce­ments needed to live (ex. food)
Punishment
Adding­/re­moving something so that an action is not repeated
Reinfo­rcement
Events following response that increase likelihood of that response being repeated
Secondary Reinfo­rcers
Reinfo­rcers based on one's wants (ex. phone)
Shaping
Using reinfo­rce­ments and punish­ments to get a certain behavior
Skinner Box
Rats were shocked slightly until they pushed a lever to receive food

Pavlonian Condit­ioning

Reinfo­rcement Schedules

Continuous Reinfo­rcement
Everything in a response is reinforced
Fixed-­Int­erval Schedule
Reinforcer given after a period of time
Fixed-­Ratio Schedule
Reinforcer given after set number of unrein­forced responses
Interm­itt­ent­/Pa­rtial Reinfo­rcement
Only reinfo­rcing designated response sometimes
Variab­le-­Int­erval Schedule
Reinforcer given a random time period after first response
Variab­le-­Ratio Schedule
Reinforcer given after random number of non-re­inf­orced responses

Reinfo­rcement Schedules

Types of Intell­igences

Crysta­llized Intell­igence
Ability to apply acquired skills and knowledge to problems
Emotional Intell­igence
Ability to perceive, unders­tand, manage, and use emotions
Fluid Intell­igence
Ability to reason, memory capacity, and speed of inform­ation processing
Intell­ectual Disability
Subnormal mental ability and defici­encies in every day things before the age of 18
Practical Intell­igence
Sees all aspects of a problem; good decisions; poses problems in an optimal way
Social Intell­igence
Accepts others for what they are; thinks before speaking; sensitive to other people's needs and desires
Verbal Intell­igence
Verbally fluent; speaks clearly; knowle­dgeable in a certain field; reads with high compre­hension

Sex

Bisexual
Seek emotional sexual relati­onships with members of either sex
Estrogen
Primary female hormone
Hetero­sexual
Seek emotional sexual relati­onships with the opposite sex
Homosexual
Seek emotional sexual relati­onships with the same sex
Refractory Period
Time after orgasm in which males are unresp­onsive to further stimul­ation
Sexual Disorder
A problem that consis­tently impairs sexual arousal or function
Sexual Orient­ation
A person's preference or emotional and sexual relati­onships in their sex
Sexual Response Cycle
Excite­ment, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Testos­terone
Primary male hormone
Vasoco­nge­stion
Engorg­ement of blood vessels to produce an erection
 

Parts of Language

Language
Symbols that convey meaning with rules on how to put them together to mean an infinite number of things
Morphemes
Smallest unit of speech; 100 possible but 40 in English
Phonemes
Smallest distin­gui­shable unit of speech; 50,000 in English (root words, prefixes, suffixes)
Semantics
Concerned with meaning of words and their combin­ations; deepest way to encode
Syntax
System of rules in a language (grammar rules)

Learning Language

Fast Mapping
When young kids remember a word by only seeing it once
Language Acquis­ition Device
Innate process that helps one learn a language
Overex­tension
Child uses a word for a wider set of objects or actions than intended (calls every circular thing a ball)
Overre­gul­ari­zation
Incorrect applic­ation of gramma­tical rules (feets instead of feet)
Telegr­aphic Speech
Consists or two word phrases (Give food)
Undere­xte­nsion
Child uses a word for a smaller range of objects than intended (only calls their dog a dog)

Problem Solving

Algorithm
Step-b­y-step procedure for trying all altern­atives searching for a solution
Decision Making
Evaluating altern­atives and making decisions
Framing
The way in which questions are worded
Functional Fixedness
Seeing an item as its most common use
Heuristic
Guiding principle used in solving problems or making decisions (going right is always right)
Incubation
New solutions arising after taking a break from solving
Insight
Suddenly discov­ering correct solution to a problem after struggling for a while
Mental Set
Using something again because its worked before
Problem Solving
Efforts made to discover what must be done to achieve a goal
Problem Space
Set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver
Risky Decision Making
Making uncertain choices
Semantic Slanting
Choosing words to elicit an emotional response and gain a certain reaction or solution
Theory of Bounded Ration­ality
Using simple decision making strategies which often result in irrational decisions (choosing C on a test when you're lost)

Heuris­tics/ Fallacies

Availa­bility Heuristic
Basing estimates on what one has seen
Belief Bias
Illogical conclu­sions to confirm previous beliefs
Belief Persev­erance
Maintain a belief even after evidence contra­dicts it
Conjun­ction Fallacy
Estimating that odds of two events happening together are greater than them happening by themselves
Gambler's Fallacy Heuristic
Believing probab­ility of something happening will increase if it hasn't happened in a whille
Repres­ent­ati­veness Heuristic
Basing estimates on how similar it is to a prototype

Test Types

Achiev­ement Test
Asses a person's mastery and knowledge on a topic
Aptitude Tests
Tests specific types of mental abilities
Intell­igence Tests
Measures general mental ability
Person­ality Tests
Measures various aspects of one's person­ality
Psycho­logical Test
Standard measure of a sample of a person's behavior

Test Verifi­cation

Construct Validity
How well evidence lines up a hypoth­etical costruct
Content Validity
Degree to which test content represents domain its supposed to cover
Correl­ation Coeffi­cient
Degree of relati­onship of two variables
Criterion Relate Validity
Comparing two assess­ments that should represent the same inform­ation
Percentile Score
Percent of people who score at or below a certain score
Reliab­ility
How consistent the scores of a test are
Standa­rdi­zation
Uniform procedures used when admini­stering and scoring tests
Test Norms
Inform­ation about where a score on a psycho­logical test ranks compared to others
Validity
Ability of a test to measure what it's supposed to measure

Test Verifi­cation

Construct Validity
How well evidence lines up a hypoth­etical costruct
Content Validity
Degree to which test content represents domain its supposed to cover
Correl­ation Coeffi­cient
Degree of relati­onship of two variables
Criterion Relate Validity
Comparing two assess­ments that should represent the same inform­ation
Percentile Score
Percent of people who score at or below a certain score
Reliab­ility
How consistent the scores of a test are
Standa­rdi­zation
Uniform procedures used when admini­stering and scoring tests
Test Norms
Inform­ation about where a score on a psycho­logical test ranks compared to others
Validity
Ability of a test to measure what it's supposed to measure

Theories of Emotion

       
 

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