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Educational psychology Cheat Sheet by

Definition, history, proponents, scope, effective teaching, principles of development, exceptional children, strategies to reduce bullying


Educat­ional psychology
"­study of learning in all its aspect­s" (Carol­l,1965)
"­study of educat­ion­" (Peel, 1956)
specia­lizes in unders­tanding teaching and learning in educat­ional settings
knowledge of learners, their abilities, devel stages and envi influence

Historic background

west greek philos­ophers
democritus - 1st to emphasize influence of home on devel person­ality of child
4th century BC
plato & aristotle - system of edu to psych principles (diff types for diff ppl)
aristotle - presented psych views more compre­hen­sively - believed in faculty theory of mind (mind is made of diff faculties like reasoning, imagin­ation etc) and emphasized intell­ectual process
scholars modified from aristo­tle's doctrines
Doctrine of faculties
mind is considered as 3 indepe­ndent sets of power/­cap­acities -
1) reasoning, unders­tanding
2) feelings, desires, emotions, appetites
3) will
John Locke
empirist (tabula rasa: blank slate - learning only from nurture) - learning abt external world through senses (argued that faculties are mot from soul)
believed in and used the faculty theory
1st to psycho­logize edu (edu is process of drawing out the indiv) - evoloved learning and teaching programmes
Herbart and Froebel
german prpfes­sors, rejected faculty theory
herbert - imp of interest & assimi­lation of ideas
froebel - 1st to establish kinder­garten, emphasized imp of early experi­ences in learning
18th century
William James - book: principles of psychology (1890)
J.M.Ca­ttell - indiv differ­ences, mental testing
Alfred Binet - 1st inteli­gence scale

Scope of edu psych

Lindgren (1976) - 3 elemen­ts/­focus areas in edu -
1. learner
most imp bcz w/o learner, there is no learning, variables - indiv differ­ences, devel char, mental health, intell­igence, person­ality, psych issues
2. learning process
what ppl do (direct - writing, answering, computing etc, indirect obs - percei­ving, thinking, rememb­ering) - includes psych of learning, factors affecting it, diagnosis for learning diffic­ulties
3. learning situation
teacher, classroom setting (venti­lation, light, noise, seat arrang­ement), attitude of teacher, class morale, emo climate of school

Strategies to reduce bullying

Olweus (1993), bullying is an aggres­sive, intent­ional act carried out by an individual or a group repeatedly over time, and involves the imbalance of power, with the bully wielding the power. The behaviour could be emotional or physical.
factors for not reporting
: teachers’ lack of interest, willin­gness and skill in managing bullying behaviour, as well as the ethos and culture the school upholds
stop talking about school, regularly arrive late, miss classes or make excuses to miss school
Conflict resolu­tion, peer mediation strategies and group therapy focused on increasing self-e­steem have proved ineffe­ctive with bullies
bullying results from a power imbalance, rather than from deficits in social skills
school level
role play - to teach victims how to handle bullying situations
teach victims to identify verbal attacks
classroom level
school code of conduct - modelling of desirable behavior
reinforce classroom rules + structure
individual level
discus­sions with bullies, victims and parents
improve teacher knowledge about classr­oom­-based bullying prevention activities
playground superv­ision
reporting bullying - to school manage­ment, parents, CRs
info dissem­ina­tions (abt dangers + conseq­uences of bullying behav - to both bully & victim
focus group discus­sions (B,V)
keep them busy with CCA's
increase security & frisking (for guns, knifes)
separate students

Proponents of edu psych

William James
to teach children effect­ively: observ­ation in classrooms >> lab psych exps.
his reccom­end­ation: know child's level of knowledge + start lessons at a point just above child's knowledge to expand understanding
assess­ment, analysis, interp­ret­ation
John Dewey
establ­ished 1st major edu psych lab in US, Chicago, 1894.
his contribution:
1) children - active, learn best by doing >> passive, sit quietly in seats
2) edu should focus on whole child + emphasize adaptation to envi (child should learn to think, reason, adapt, be reflective problem solvers)
3) democratic edu - competent edu for all (irres of gender, SES etc)
E. L. Thorndike
assess­ment, measur­ement and scientific ideas of teaching, learning
hone child's reasoning skills
edu psych must have scientific basis and focus strongly on measur­ement (tests, exams)

Principles of develo­pment: It is a

product of intera­ction
follows an orderly sequence
either cephal­ocaudal (top to bottom) or proximal (horiz­ontal)
continous process
goes from bilateral (learning to use parts of body) to unilateral (colle­ctive indiv)
different aspects of indiv are interr­elated
indivi­dua­lised process
proceeds from general to specific
rate of devel differs wrt gender

Effective teaching

teachers must have:
(1) profes­sional knowledge and skills
Subjec­t-M­atter Competence - though­tful, flexible, conceptual unders­tanding of subject matter (knowledge about organizing ideas, connec­tions among ideas, ways of thinking and arguing, patterns of change & beliefs about a discip­line, ability to carry ideas from one discipline to another)
Instru­ctional Strategies -
a) constr­uct­ivist approach - learne­r-c­entered - actively constr­ucting their knowledge and unders­tanding with guidance from the teacher
b) direct instru­ction approach - struct­ured, teache­r-c­entered - teacher control & direction, maximise student learning time
(2) commit­ment, motivation (help students self motivat & take accoun­tab­ility + high expect­ations for their achiev­ement), and caring
In commit­ment, skills- thinking (open-­minded, curious, accurate interp­ret­ation), goal setting & instru­ctional planning (high goals + specific criteria for success + organize lessons), classroom management (hangle misbeh­avior + establish rules + monitor activites + organize groups), commun­ication skills (verbal + tuning in to students’ nonverbal commun­ica­tion, and constr­uct­ively resolving conflicts + intera­ction with parents), assessment knowledge (choose type) and techno­logical skills (imrpove, support learning), develo­pmental approp­riate teaching practices
[D-TACTIC = D-deve­lop­mental approp­riate teaching practices, T-thin­king, A-asse­ssment develo­pment, C-comm, T-tech­olo­gical, I-inst­ruc­tional planning and goal setting, C-clas­sroom manage­mment]

Except­ional children

except­ional child - deviates from averag­e/n­ormal child (physical, intellect, emotional, social) that they cannot be benefitted from regular classroom programme and needs special treatment in school - W M Cruich­shank
1. intell­ect­ually except­ional
gifted, slow, educable mentally retarded, severelly mentally retarded
2. physical
impaired - vision, hearing, speech, brain injured, crippled
3. emotional
4. multih­and­icapped
need for special edu
1. they dont benefit from regular classes
2. for making mental and physical handic­apped properly trained - assests of society
3. insight to problems of except­ional children + solve them
how to identify gifted child
IQ 110-140+, high social potent­iality (all rounders), 2-4% of population in IQ
by doctors (behav char -early lang & walking, pinching at food, peer at strang­ers), group IQ or achiev­ement tests, school marks, teachers obs
physical char of gifted child
fall ill less, overall faster (proximo, cephalo) devel
mental char of gifted child
360 superi­ority, better reasoning, genera­liz­ation, comphr­ension, seeing bigger pic, interest in abstract subs, more social­able, emotional, indepe­ndence, maturity, well-a­djusted


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