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BIO 251 Exam 1 Cheat Sheet by

Endocrine, lymphatic, blood

Various endocrine organs and functions of each

Hypoth­alamus (contr­ol/­int­egr­ator)
releasing hormones to the anterior pituitary (blood commun­ica­tion) and direct connection to posterior pituitary (nerve commun­ica­tion)
Pineal gland
sleep
Pituitary gland
1st hormones to body organs
Pancreas
Insulin and glucagon
Thyroid gland
Parafo­lli­cular cells, high blood calcium, storage of calcium in bone
Parath­yroid gland
low blood calcium, parath­yroid hormone (pth), release calcium into blood from bone

Pituitary gland

Adrenal glands
stress response, blood pressure response, blood osmola­rity, sex hormones
Thyroid gland
follicular cells, release thyroid hormone (t3 and t4) to increase metabolism and body temper­ature
Mammary gland
secretion of milk for offspring
Testes
make and release testos­terone
Ovaries
make and release estrogen and proges­terone
Melano­cytes
makes melanin, protection from UV rays
Ductus deferens
orgasm response, semen
Uterine and vaginal muscles
orgasm response, childbirth
Liver
blood sugar regulation and storage, growth hormone signaling to muscle and bone
Bone
growth hormone cycle
Muscle
growth hormone cycle, glucose storage
Kidneys
water and blood pressure

Steroid and non-st­eroid hormone mechanisms

What are charac­ter­istics of steroid hormones?
lipid so they enter the cell and go into the nucleus and target DNA to make new proteins
What are charac­ter­istics of a non-st­eroid hormone?
do not enter cell, interact with surface proteins -> secondary messenger internally in the cell to cause response (signaling cascade)

T3T4 production for thyroid gland (hypot­hal­amus)

Temp/m­eta­bolism feedback loop
Low metabolism - low T3T4, low body temp
TRH -> TSH -> follicular cells release the follicle containing T3 and T4 -> increase metabolism

Thyroid Follicular Cells and Parafo­lli­cular Cells

Parafo­lli­cular
High calcium
Follicular
Low metabolism (T3 and T4)

Layers of Adrenal Gland

Cortex
 
Zona glomer­ulosa
stress response - cortisol
 
Zona fascic­ulata
low blood volume - aldost­erone
 
Zona reticu­laris
DHEA and andros­ten­edione, precursors to sex hormones
Medulla
stress response - epinep­hrine and norepi­nep­hrine

Basic Knowledge for Multiple Choice

Know the effects of the renin-­ang­iot­ens­in-­ald­ost­erone system and how it regulates blood volume and blood pressure in detail
Know how ACE inhibitors work
Know how ADH works and how it regulates blood osmolarity and blood pressure

Diabetes mellitus (I and II) effects on bg

Type I
no production of insulin
Type II
we may or may not make insulin and body cells no longer respond to insulin - insulin resistance
Insulin beta cells use glucose so we can't control high glucose levels
Low levels can cause diabetic coma

Endocrine Pathology

Hypert­hyr­oidism
High thyroid activity - weight loss, etc., cushing's syndrome, insomnia, hypera­ctivity
Hypoth­yro­idsim
A lack of temp. control, weight gain, hair loss, lethargy, etc.
Diabetes
sugar in urine (sweet urine)
 
Insipidus
Kidneys processing too quickly, water goes through too fast, excessive urination, dehydr­ation
 
Mellitus
insulin issues

Endocrine System

What are the simila­rities of the endocrine and nervous systems?
Both control systems (homeo­stasis and other)
What are some differ­ences of the nervous and endocrine systems?
Mode of commun­ication (endo- hormones nerv- electrial signals)
Speed of response (endo- slow nerv- fast)
Duration of change­/re­sponse (endo- longish term nerv- gone fast)
 

Blood Glucose Feedback Loop

Stimulus
Increased blood glucose
Sensor­/In­teg­rator
Pancreatic Beta cells
Hormone Released
Insulin
Effector
Liver and skeletal muscle
Response
Liver and skeletal muscle uptake glucose -> glycogen
Result
Decrease In blood glucose and return to homeos­tasis

Growth Hormone Feedback Loop

Stimulus
Low blood glucose, sleep, or stress
Sensor­/In­teg­rator
Hypoth­alamus
Hormone Released
GHRH
Target
Anterior Pituitary Somato­tropes
Hormone Released
GH
Effector
Liver, bones, muscles, fat cells
Response
Increase blood glucose, cell growth and prolif­era­tion, bone length, muscle mass, lipolysis. Decrease glucose uptake
Result
Return to homeos­tatic blood glucose levels and growth and repair of the body

Calcium Feedback Loop (High)

Stimulus
Increased blood Ca2+
Sensor­/In­teg­rator
Parafo­lli­cular cells in thyroid gland
Hormone released
Calctionin
Effectors
Osteob­lasts
Responses
Osteob­lasts activity increases = put calcium into bone
Result
Blood calcium level decreases back to normal

Calcium Feedback Loop (Low)

Stimulus
Decreased blood Ca2+
Sensor­/In­teg­rator
Parath­yroid glands
Hormone released
PTH
Effectors
Osteoc­lasts, kidneys, intestines
Responses
Osteoc­lasts degrade bone matrix which releases calcium into blood, kidney (reabsorb Ca) targets liver which releases Vit. D. Vit D to intestines absorb more calcium
Result
Calcium blood return to normal range

Calcium Feedback Loop (Low)

Stimulus
Decreased blood Ca2+
Sensor­/In­teg­rator
Parath­yroid glands
Hormone released
PTH
Effectors
Osteoc­lasts, kidneys, intestines
Responses
Osteoc­lasts degrade bone matrix which releases calcium into blood, kidney (reabsorb Ca) targets liver which releases Vit. D. Vit D to intestines absorb more calcium
Result
Calcium blood return to normal range

Metabolism Feedback Loop

Stimulus
Decrease in T3 and T4 concen­tra­tions
Sensor­/In­teg­rator
Chemo and temp receptors, Hypoth­alamus
Hormone Released
Hypoth­alamus releases TRH
Target
Anterior pituitary
Hormone released
TSH
Target
Thyroid gland (folli­cular cells)
Hormone released
Thyroid gland released T3 and T4
Effector
Body tissues
Response
Increased metabolic activity
Result
Return to homeos­tatic body temper­ature, increase in energy

Lymphatic System

What are charac­ter­istics of the lymphatic system?
Vessels, nodes, and accessory organs filled with water like fluid
What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?
To return free fluid in the body back to the blood, houses and matures the WBC

Function of Lymphatic sys. & Accessory

Vessels
Vessels, trunks, ducts
Absorption of inters­titial fluid and transp­ort­ation of lymph
Nodes
Structures that house and allow for storage of an maturation of lympho­cytes
Monitor lymph fluid for pathogens
Thymus
where T cells mature
Spleen
Were we send red blood cells to be recycled , storage of WBC
Lacteals
in the intestine microvilli fat absorption
MALT
nodules to monitor incoming solutes for pathogens, in mucosa

Lymph Drainage

Right lymphatic duct
right lymphatic vessels of the right facde, right neck, right arm, right axillary and cervical lymph nodes
Left lymphatic duct aka thoracic duct
All remaining lymph vessels and nodes of the upper body and the total lower body. Left cervical, left axillary, l+r iliac, l+r inguinal lymph nodes

Role of the lymphatic sys. in immune response

House and mature many white blood cells, we transport WBC from tissues back into circul­ation, nodes monitor cells and pathogens that travel through
 

Erythr­ocyte recycling

Break down old RBC with the spleen and liver, dispose of bilirubin as bile, reuse iron to make new RBC

Blood

What are general charac­ter­istics of blood?
Fluid, proteins, cells

Functions of blood

Transp­ort­ation
Gases, nutrients, hormons, WBCs (immune response throughout the body)

Blood recipient prob and erythr­obl­astosis fetalis

Agglut­ination with the wrong type blood - destroy blood, death
Mother is Rh- and has been exposed to positive blood/­ant­igen, has made antibodies against Rh+, will attack fetus

Clotting Disorders

Lack of platelet production = no clot = thromb­ocy­topenia
Hemophilia - genetic disorder that stops/­lacks conversion of clotting factors

Thrombus and Embolus

Thrombus
Clot forming where it does not belong, usually in an artery with choles­terol crystal deposits
Embolus
Thrombus dislodging from the clot, can block a vessel somewhere else in the body, I.e. pulmonary embolus

Steps of Hemostasis (basic steps)

Vascular spasms
let a ton of blood in the area to provide platelets
Platelet plug
platelets start to stick together and adhere to endoth­elium and CT
Coagul­ation
1. Prothr­ombin activator released by damage
2.PA converts prothr­ombin into thrombin
3. Thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin (insoluble - not dissol­vable)

Anemia and Polycy­themia

Anemia
low O2 to tissues
Hemorr­hagic anemia
caused by blood loss
Hemolytic anemia
excessive RBC destru­ction with low hemato­poiesis
Aplastic anemia
bone marrow is not functi­oning enough (during and after chemo)
Iron deficient
not enough iron to make hemoglobin
Sickle Cell anemia
inherited Hb mutation
Polycy­themia
high RBC - blood is too viscou­s/thick dec. O2 delivery to tissues, lead to clots

Components of blood and plasma

Plasma
proteins (albumins [most abundant], globulins, fibrin­ogen), water, solutes (ions, waste, gases, regulation molecu­les­/ho­rmones)
Formed elements
cells and others
Erythr­ocyte
transp­ort­ation of gases
Leukocytes
Immune response
Platelets
Blood clotting

RBC Count

Low RBC
Tired/­let­hargy, dizzin­ess­/light headed­ness, increased heart rate, headaches, shortness of breath, pale skin
Extra RBC but not too high
Blood doping, inc. O2 carrying capacity, decreases fatigue, inc. perfor­mance
High RBC (low plasma - dehydr­ation)
Fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia, itchy skin

Hematocrit

% of formed elements specif­ically RBC
Estimate of oxygen carrying capacity

Hemato­poiesis Feedback Loop

Stimulus
Decreased O2 to tissues
Sensor­/in­tef­rator
Kidney
Signal released
Erythr­opo­ietin
Effector
Spongy bone - red bone marrow
Response
Make RBC
Result
Inc. delivery of O2 to tissues back to homeos­tasis

Hemato­poesis

Making of blood cells - differ­ent­iation of stem cells
Myeloid stem cells (makes RBC, platelets, basophils, eosino­phils, neutro­phils, monocy­tes). Lymphoid stem cells (lymph­ocytes)
Red bone marrow
in spongy bone

Structure of Hb Subunits

Alpha chains x2
Beta chains x2
Each chain forms around an iron molecule (Fe) (1 Heme = chain + Fe)
4 heme = hemoglobin
1 heme carries 1 O2
1 hemoglobin - carries 4 O2

Hb binding affinity for O2 and CO2

Lungs
pH - high pH -> inc. O2 affinity and binding
Temp - cold -> inc. O2 affinity and binding
Partial Pressure - lots of O2 -> inc. O2 affinity and binding
Body tissues
pH - low pH -> dec. O2 affinity and binding allow CO2 binding
Temp - lots of metabolism inc. heat -> dec. O2 affinity and binding allow CO2 binding
Partial Pressure - lots of CO2 -> dec. O2 affinity and bonding

Facts for RBCs

About 44% of blood
4-7mil­lion/mm3 in an adult
Live for about 120 days
Anucleate at maturity

Purpose of RBC Shape

Biconcave
increases surface area to increase diffusion fro transp­ort­ation
How does sickle cell anemia affect the shape?
changes the surface area of the cell, changes the Hb folding, holdin­g/t­ran­spo­rting less material, the hook shape can get stuck together more easily causing clots

Lympho­cytes

B cells
antibody making memory cells, pathogens we have come across before (bacteria, virus, etc.)
T cells
memory cells that target the cells or other pathogens that are foreign directly
NK cells
cancer killers, destroy abnormal cells

Leukocytes

Neutro­phils
innate immunity, bacterial infection
Lympho­cytes
adaptive immunity
Monocytes
innate immunity, but will follow b cell orders or antibody flags, macrop­hage, usually stay in peripheral tissues
Eosino­phils
innate immunity, parasites
Basophils
damage identi­fying cells, increase inflam­mation and blood flow to damaged but not bleeding areas
 

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