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APUSH 1890-1945 Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet by

Period 7 (last chapter)

Movements and Reforms

Progre­ssive Era (1901-­1917)
mainly driven by the middle class and educated that wanted to tweak it through "­pro­gre­ss" with an expanded role of government (regulated capita­lism)
Progre­ssivism
social or political movement that aims to represent the interests of ordinary people through political change and an expanded size and role of the government (very inclusive)
TR Square Deal
CORPOR­ATION: believed that there were good trusts and bad trusts (break bad, regulated good) first President to actually use the power of the Sherman Antitrust Act
TR Square Deal
CONSER­VATION: sought to protect land from exploi­tation by corpor­ations, expanded the National Park System, protected wetlands
TR Square Deal
CONSUMERS: sought to protect consumers from the power of corpor­ations (high prices bc monopo­lized)
Muckrakers
wrote articles exposing corruption in government and industry (Ida Tarbell in Standard Oil, Jacob Riis in "How the other side lived")
Settlement House Movement (late 1880s)
founding settlement houses to respond to growing industrial poverty and the negative effects of rapid urbani­zation (Jane Addams "Hull House" in Chicago)
Temperance Movement
curb the consum­ption of alcohol in the U.S. led to 18th amendm­ent­(pr­ohi­bition of alcohol) which was mostly done by women
Moral Reform Movement (late 1800s)
sought to "­clean up" American society of the perceived moral degrad­ation that had taken place to targeted pornog­raphy, prosti­tution, vulgarity, etc
Anthracite Coal Strike (1902
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsy­lvania. demanded higher wages, shorter workdays, and union recogn­ition
"­neutral arbitr­ato­r"
Roosevelt intervened in the above strike (1st time that the government did not side with big business like in Gilded Age)
Committee on Public Inform­ation
a propaganda agency tasked with swaying public opinion in favor of the war
Food Admini­str­ation
conser­vation of food so that surpluses could be sent to Europe to feed the Allied soldiers and civilians
War Industries Board
guide the economy during the war esp. to guide factories on war effort production
Great Migration (1910-­1970)
bulk of migration bc enlisting for WW1 from rural South to urban North, Midwest, West
Harlem Renais­sance (1920s)
AA life through music, murals, literature which brought white-­black commun­ities together
KKK (1925)
led a march of over 50,000 people in Washin­gton, D.C. while demanding laws against immigr­ation (opposed Catholics, blacks, and Jews)
Fundam­ent­alist
emphasized the literal truth and interp­ret­ation of the Bible
Modernist
attempted to reconcile the Bible with scientific knowledge
Scopes (Monkey) Trial
symbolized the conflict between science and theology, faith and reason, individual liberty and majority rule
The New Deal (relief, recover, reform)
FDR approach to rebuild the economy after the Great Depression (stimulate economic activity)
 

Court Cases/ Amendments

Muller v. Oregon (1908)
upheld an Oregon law limiting the workday for female wage earners to ten hours
Insular Cases (1901)
Supreme Court ruled territ­ories under U.S. control don''t automa­tically receive the consti­tut­ional rights of U.S. citizens
Schenck v. United States (1919)
upheld the right of the Government to pass and enforce the Espionage and Sedition Acts during war
16th amendment
Congress has the power to pass direct taxes, such as income tax
17th amendment
Senators are to be elected by the voters in their state
18th amendment
produc­tion, distri­bution, and sale of alcoholic beverages is illegal (prohi­bited)
19th amendment
gives women the right to vote (suffrage)
 

Politics and Economics

Populist
mostly small farmers, wanted to abolish national banks, graduated income tax, direct election of senators, civil service reform, 8-hour workday, gov't control of RR and commun­ication
Progre­ssives
mostly urban middle class, educated, women (purify not radically change), + labor condit­ions, prohib­ition, Americ­ani­zation of Immigr­ants, anti-t­rust, women's suffrage
Payne Aldrich Tariff (1909)
dropped rates only about 5% (Taft pormised way less rates) and raised it on iron ore and coal
Underwood Tariff (1913)
Taft lowered tariff from 40%-25% and lost revenue made up in 16th amendment
Federal Reserve Act
establ­ished a system of 12 federal banks & Federal Reserve Board, set interest rates, regulate the money
Clayton Anti-Trust
by Taft, streng­thened Sherman Anti-Trust
Spanis­h-A­merican War
interv­ent­ionist b/c imperi­alism (gained Cuba, Guam, Philli­pines)
(China) Open Door Policy
policy of promoting equal opport­unity for intern­ational trade and commerce
Neutrality (1914-­1917)
British and French were allies to the u.s but they wanted to stay neutral
Espionage Act (1917)
illegal to engage in any activity that interfered with the war effort
Sedition Act (1918)
illegal to speak out against the govern­ment, the country, or the war itself
League of Nations (1920)
intern­ational organi­zation to maintain peace & prevent further war but U.S. never joined b/c it would turn them interv­ent­ionist (Repub­lican Irreco­nci­lables)
Emergency Quota Act (1921)
based on 3% of each nation­ality living in the U.S. in 1910
Immigr­ation Quota Act (1924)
2% of nation­ality living in the U.S. in 1890
FDIC (1933)
President Roosevelt that regulates banks and insures bank deposits for consumers
Court-­Packing (1937)
FDR unsucc­ess­fully attempted to add new members to the SC--6 new liberal justices (b/c New Deal)
Neutrality Acts (1935-­1937)
attempted to keep America neutral due to the aggressive actions of Italy, Japan, and Germany and the potential war
Cash and Carry Policy (1939)
allowed the sale of goods and/or arms to warring nations as long as the nations paid cash (no loans) and carried the goods and/or arms away on their own ships

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