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APUSH 1822-1877 Cheat Sheet Cheat Sheet by

Period 5 Apush Cheat sheet

Presidents

James Monroe (1817-­1825)
Democr­ati­c-R­epu­blican; major westward expansion and streng­thened foreign policy with the Monroe Doctrine (warning to European countries against further coloni­zation)
John Quincy Adams (1825-­1829)
Democr­ati­c-R­epu­blican; outspoken in his opposition to slavery
Andrew Jackson (1829-­1837)
Democr­atic; "­peo­ple's presid­ent­"; destroyed second bank of the US, supported individual liberty, founded democratic party
Martin Van Buren (1837-­1841)
Democr­atic; blocked annexation of Texas bc it would add to slave territory
John Tyler (1841-­1845)
Whig; served without being elected
James K. Polk (1845-­1849)
Democr­atic; reduced tariffs, reformed national banking system, settled boundary dispute w/ British that secured Oregon territory
Millard Fillmore (1850-­1853)
Whig; insisted on federal enforc­ement of Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 - alienated the North and led to destru­ction of Whig party
Franklin Pierce (1853-­1857)
Democr­atic; incapable of stemming march towards Civil War; Gadsden purchase extending frontier N and W
James Buchanan (1857-­1861)
Democr­atic; inability to halt the southern states' drive toward secession
Abraham Lincoln (1861-­1865)
(Assas­sin­ated) Republican National Union; He lay the stepping stone for Recons­tru­ction. succes­sfully prosecuted the Civil War to preserve the nation
Andrew Johnson (1865-­1869)
Democratic National Union; first American president to be impeached; The primary charge against Johnson was violation of the Tenure of Office Act,
Ulysses S. Grant (1869-­1877)
Republ­ican; led the Union Armies to victory over the Confed­eracy in the American Civil War; working to implement Congre­ssional Recons­tru­ction and to remove the vestiges of slavery
 

Politi­cs/­Eco­nomics

Era of Good Feelings
on the surface everything seemed great and war was stalemate - seen as American victory, British threat no longer seemed to be problem; in reality many economic issues like high tariff rates, slavery
Election of 1824/C­orrupt Bargain
Jackson thought Henry Clay sabotaged his election against John Quincy Adams so that Clay could be president in the future (he was secretary to Adams)
Immigr­ation
Factors that led to immigr­ation: 1st industrial revolu­tion, abundance of land
Nativism
fear of immigrants on American life, mob violence against Catholics
Democrats (party of tradition)
brought into office by Jackson, limited gov,
Whigs (party of modern­iza­tion)
hopes of Americans, diverse members, divided over issue of slavery, banks, promote economic growth
Jacksonian Democracy
everyday man, expand economic, social, aspects; 2 party system emerges; BANK WARS - vetoes charter for 3rd bank, believed bank only benefited rich and expanded fed. Gov
Slavery Expansion
cheap labor ( tobacco and cotton) native americans were hard to enslav­e,i­nde­ntured servants got freed, slaves were for a life time, there were slave codes
Liberty Party
seperate from the anti slavery organi­zation, seperated inorder to pursue an abolition agenda through the political process. Attempted to function as a third party.
Free Soil Party
political party that opposed the exapansion of slavery in territ­ories, most became republ­icans, wanted free soil, free labor, and free men
Chinese Trade 1844
in 1844 the us signed a treaty with china to enjoy trading privil­eges; clipper ships - fast moving and allowed US to open up trade routes to Asia
California Gold Rush 1849
prospe­ctors known as forty niners streamed to california after the discovery of gold, gaining wealth by moving west
Compromise of 1850
attempted to stop the issue of division between the states due to slavery; California enters as a free state; fugative slave slaw- law that provided for the return of escaped slaves found in the north to their owners in the south
Kansas Nebraska Act 1854
allowed for kansas and nebraska to decide on the issue of slavery through popular sovere­ignty
Bleeding Kansas
result of Kansas­-Ne­braska Act; anti slavery and pro slavery poured into kansas to alter popular soveri­ngty, john brown mascaraed people, started a violent attack, resulted in a failure of popular sovere­ignty
Panic of 1857
Causes: gold rush in cali caused inflat­ion­/over specul­ation in land and railroad constr­uction. Effects: many businesses failed, unempl­oyment, north affected the most bc of the industry and the south wasnt as affected bc they had cotton­-made the south think that they are superior.
Election of 1860
Lincoln R, defeats democrats, there was a huge division between north and south in politics; led to 7 southern states to secede, marking the start of the civil war.
Causes of Civil War
Missouri compro­mise, nullif­ication crisis, Mexican cession, Dred Scott,
Recons­tru­ction - Radical Republ­icans
very harsh to south, opposed slavery, civil/­black rights
Recon - Carpet­baggers
used to describe northe­rners by southe­rners
Recon - KKK
secret organi­zation in south after the CW that used violence and intimi­dation to restore power to southern whites
 

Court Cases/­Ame­ndm­ent­s/Acts

Dred Scott vs Sanford 1857
African Americans aren't allowed to sue; are black and are considered property, they are not citizens. Angered the north a lot. gave momentum to the anti-s­lavery movement and served as a stepping stone to the Civil War.
Homestead Act 1862
Fed law that provided 160 acres of public land to anyone who lived on/cul­tivated that land for 5 years; LED TO MASS MIGRATION WEST
13th Amendment
ended the instit­ution of slavery
14th Amendment
made former slaves citizens and guaranteed them equal protection under the law
15th Amendment
prohibited states from denying anyone the right to vote due to race or whether they were former slaves
Civil Rights Act 1875
law that prohbited racial discri­min­ation in jury selection, transp­ort­ation, business,
Compromise of 1877
was used to end the disputed presid­ential election of 1876, republican gained the presidency under rutherford b hayes in return he agreed to remove northern troops from south thus ending recons­tru­ction and allowing the redeemers to come to power.
 

Movements and Reforms

Views of Slavery
Abolition, southern pride ("Im­pending Crisis of the South", book that showed hatred to slaves and blacks, said that non slave owning whites were the ones who suffered because they couldnt compete in the labor system), racist­/white mans burden- some saw backs as inferior, economic, slavery was seen as a necessary evil
Women in the Civil War
Thousands of women became nurses and relief workers, and some of them also wanted to fight. Although women were prohibited from serving in the military, a few determined women disguised themselves as men and fought in the war, distin­gui­shing themselves in battle.
Ohio Women's Rights Convention 1851
It was the third in a series of women's rights conven­tions that began with the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848; Men were not allowed to vote, sit on the platform or speak during the convention
Dorothea Dix
Dorothea Lynde Dix was an American advocate on behalf of the indigent mentally ill, created the first generation of American mental asylums.

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