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APUSH 1865-1898 Cheat sheet Cheat Sheet by

Period 6 (4th period to be tested on)

Reform­s/M­ove­ments

Web Dubois
civil rights activist, main target: racism, strongly protested lynching & Jim Crow Laws & discri­min­ation, immediate reform by edu
Booker T Washington (Atlantic Compromise 1895)
more economic partic­ipation for AA founded the National Negro Business League
NAWSA (women)
Elizabeth Cady Stanto­n/Susan B. Anthony, fought for women’s suffrage, = rights, women to join labor unions
National Labor Union (1866)
political agenda (= rights for women and blacks), 8-hr workday, social issues over labor issues
Knights of Labor Union (1869)
industrial union, accepted membership from most trades, race, religion, sex (grew rapidly), unity/­rights for all, reputation damaged by Haymarket riot
American Federation of Labor (1886)
Craft unions only (skilled white workers), achieve + wages, minimize work hrs, improve work conditions over transform U.S. society
Nativist
viewed 2nd wave of immigr­ation as threat (cheap labor, take jobs)
Susan B Anthony
women's rights activist, speeches to convince for suffrage
WCTU 1874
opposed alcohol consum­ption, support suffrage
 

court cases

Plessy vs Ferguson (1896)
upheld Louisiana law requiring racial segreg­ation of RR facili­ties, “separate but equal” facilities were consti­tut­ional under 14 Amendment, legalized segreg­ation in US
Bradwell v. Illinois (1873)
IL denied women law license b/c right to practice not under 14th amendment
 

Politc­s/E­con­omics

Morrill Tariff Act of 1861
high protective tariff which allowed for industry to expand
National Banking Act of 1863
created uniform national bank notes elimin­ating confusion with the state bank notes
Transc­ont­inental RR (1869)
built all my immigrant workers, connect E & W markets
Robber barons (late 1800s)
derogatory term for indust­rialist & banker, placed profit over public interest
JP Morgan
money, RR
Rockef­ellar
horizontal integr­ation, Standard Oil
Carnegie
vertical integr­ation, steel, Gospel of Wealth: rich must help lower class
Vanderbilt
trains
Interstate Commerce Act 1887
tried to regulate RR monopolies b/c high cost of shipping
Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
fed gov't break up any monopolies
Laissez faire
supply and demand, capita­lism, hands off approach, allowed for corruption to grow (Adam Smith, William Sumner)
Patronage System
spoils system, practice of granting government appoin­tments to friends, political supporters
Kickbacks
You vote for me I'll help you"
Boss Tweed
very corrupt, helped immigrants in return for votes
Mugwumps
reformers (repub­licans mostly) who wanted civil service reform and end to political corrup­tion.
Great RR Strike of 1877
reaction to cut wages which led to Panic of 1873 (showed need for central gov't)
Pullman Strike (1894)
Eugene Debs, strike due to poor wages, Cleveland used force
Sharec­ropping
cotton farmers, obtained supplies & food on credit from local merchants, give share of crops to farmers, cycle of debt to keep farmers poor
Granger Laws
midwestern states to help farmers, primarily by regulating RR
Gold Standard
currency based upon a fixed quantity of gold, debtors are often hurt
Populist Activism Causes
((combat negative effects of rapid indust) think that democracy favored the rich, overpr­odu­ction, RR monopo­lies, bad enforc­ement of Interstate Commerce Act
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
break up Indian reserv­ations into individual farms and turn American Indians into homest­eaders, remaining $ used for forced assimi­lation
 

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