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A cheat sheet for Living and Working With Children

Develo­pmental Principles

Unit 1
1. Develo­pment is similar for every child
2. Develo­pment builds on early learning
3. Proceeds at an individual rate
4. Develo­pment is interr­elated
5. You develop all throughout your entire life.

Unders­tanding Infants 3

6-12 months Reflexes
6 to 9 months• rolls both ways• sits without support; stands with assist­ance• picks up toys with thumb and side of forefi­nger• moves between sitting and lying down• crawls, creeps or shuffles on bottom9 to 12 months• pulls up into an unsteady stand a month or two before first step• points with index finger

Develo­pmental Tasks

Smile. Early on, it will be just to herself. But within three months, she’ll be smiling in response to your smiles and trying to get you to smile back at her.
Raise her head and chest when on her tummy.
Track objects with her eyes and gradually decrease eye crossing.
Open and shut her hands and bring hands to her mouth.
Grip objects in her hands.
Take swipes at or reach for dangling objects, though she usually won’t be able to get them yet.

Parts of the Brain 2

The Cerebellum
Limbic System
his structure is associated with regulation and coordi­nation of movement, posture, and balance.
The limbic system, often referred to as the "­emo­tional brain", is found buried within the cerebrum. Like the cerebe­llum, evolut­ion­arily the structure is rather old.
Thalamus- The structure has sensory and motor functions
Amygdala- involved in memory, emotion, and fear.
Hypoth­alamus- functions including homoeo­stasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system.
Hippoc­ampus- learning and memory . . . for converting short term memory to more permanent memory

Parts of the Brain 1

The Cerebrum- with higher brain function such as thought and action.
Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orient­ation, recogn­ition, perception of stimuli. Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recogn­ition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

Types of Observ­ation

Running:A detailed narrative account of behavior recorded in a sequential manner as it happens.
Anecdotal records: A brief narrative account describing an incident of a child's behavior that is of interest to the observer.
Frequency: counts are a record of the number of times a specific behavior occurs within a specific time period.

Unders­tanding Infants

Head to foot. Long before birth, the baby’s head takes the lead in develo­pment. A newborn’s head is still large in proportion to the body. The same head-t­o-toe pattern continues after birth. Near to far. Develo­pment starts at the trunk of the body and moves outward. First, babies simply wave their arms when they see an object they wantSimple to Complex. At first, babies’ main activities are sleeping and eating. Gradually, they learn more compli­cated tasks

Theorsts 1

Erik Erison
Jean Piaget
Trust vs. Mistrust Age: Infancy o to 1
Children thrive on order and structure
Sensor­imo­tor(0-2 yrs) they exist separately from the objects and people around them
Autonomy Vs. Shame Age: 1-3
Children move through sensitive periods
Preope­rat­ion­al(2-7 yrs)Once children acquire language, they are able to use symbols
Intiatve vs Guilt Age: 3-5
Children need freedom
Concrete Operat­ion­al(7-11 yrs)ch­ildren are able to see things from different points of view and to imagine events that occur outside their own lives.
Industry Vs Inferi­ority Age: 5 -12
Children absorb their culture
Formal Operat­ion­al(11+ yrs)round the onset of puberty, children are able to reason in much more abstract ways and to test hypotheses
Ego Identity VS Role Confusion Age: 12- 18
Little Teachers: Listening better to older children
Genera­tivity Vs. Stagnation Care. Age: 40 - 65
Children are natural learners
Ego Integrity Vs Despair 65+


Stimul­ation: Sole of foot stroked
Fans out toes and twists foot in
Flash of light or puff of air
Closes eyes
Palms Touched
Grasps Tightly
Sudden move; Loud noise
Startles; throws out arms and legs and then pulls them toward body
Cheek stroked or side of mouth touched
Turns toward source, opens mouth and sucks
Infant held upright with feet touching ground
Moves feet as if to walk
Mouth touched by object
Sucks on object
Placed face down in water
Makes coordi­nated swimming movements
Tonic Neck
Placed on back
Makes fists and turns head to the right

Unders­tanding Infants 2

Milestones in the First Year
1 to 3 months• prefers looking at high areas of faces: forehead, eyes, mouth visually follows a bright object when it is moved slowly.hands open out from fists. 2 to 4 months• when placed on tummy, baby can lift head and shoulders• can briefly hold a toy when you place it in his palms• brings hands into eye range.4 to 6 months• begins to roll from tummy to back• reaches for objects• brings toys to mouth to explore them

Theorsts 2

B.F Skinner
Lev Vygotsky
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Positive Reinfo­rce­ment: Add appetative stimulus following correct behavi­or(­Giving a treat)
Children construct their knowledge
Physio­logical needs: Body needs
Negative Reinfo­rce­ment: Remove stimuli following correct behavior. Taking away a sticker from the child if they are bad
Develo­pment can not be separated from it's social context
Safety needs: Needs where a human needs to feel safe
Positive Punish­ment: Add noxious stimuli following behaviour. Spanking a child for cursing
Learning can lead develo­pment
Love and belonging
Negative Punish­ment: Remove appetative stimulus following behaviour. Telling the child to go to his room for cursing
language plays a central role in mental develo­pment
When/Then – Abuse It/Lose It Principle – “When you have finished your homework, then you may watch TV.”In­com­patible Altern­ative Principle – Give the child something to do that he can’t do while misbeh­avi­ng.C­hoice Principle – Give the child two choices, both of which are positive and acceptable to you.Make a Big Deal Principle Make a big deal over respon­sible, consid­erate, approp­riate behavior with attent­ion­,Talk About Them Positively to Others­,Mo­deling Principle


Very interesting!

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