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Polymers and Carbs Cheat Sheet by

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Monomers and Polymers

Monomers are the smaller units from which larger molecules are made
Polymers are molecules made from a large number of monomers joined together

Disacc­harides

Maltose
Glucose and Glucose
Sucrose
Glucose and Fructose
Lactose
Glucose and Galactose

Amylose

Polymer of alpha glucose
Coiled, alpha-­helix structure
Not branched
1-4 glycosidic bonds only
Insoluble so doesn't affect water potential
Compact so a lot can be stored in a small space
Function: energy storage in plants

Glycogen

Function: energy storage in animals
Polymers of alpha glucose
Branched structure, but more ends than amylop­ectin to reflect higher metabolic activity of animals
1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
Insoluble so doesn't affect water potential
Compact so a lot can be stored in a small space
Many ends can be acted on simult­ane­ously by enzymes

Test for sugars

Benedict's test for reducing sugars involves boiling with Benedict's solution, and the positive result is a coloured (non-blue) precip­itate
Test for non-re­ducing sugars involves boiling with HCl, neutra­lising with NaOH and then repeating the Benedict's test
 

Functions of Carboh­ydrates

Source of energy
Structural Components
Storage Compounds
Metabolite
Transport
Cell Recogn­ition

Conden­sation reactions of carboh­ydrates

Conden­sation reactions between monosa­cch­arides forms glycosidic bonds

Amylop­ectin

Function: energy storage in plants
Polymer of alpha glucose
Branched structure
1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds
Large so insoluble so doesn't affect water potential
Many ends that can be acted on by enzymes to hydrolyse quickly

Cellulose

Function: Structural components of plant cell walls
Polymer of beta glucose
Chains of altern­ately inverted beta glucose units
Hydrogen bonds between the chains increases collective strength
Forms microf­ibrils and then fibril structures which increases tensile strength
Long chains form a mesh structure and so the cell wall is permeable

Test for starch

Add iodine solution to the sample
A positive result is a blue/black solution

Test for starch

Add iodine solution to the sample
 
A positive result is a blue/black solution

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