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5 Brain Divisoons Cheat Sheet by

Telencephalon, Diencephalon, Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, Myelencephalon


The telenc­eph­alon, the largest brain division, includes the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and limbic system, governing conscious thought, percep­tion, emotions, and voluntary motor functions.

Cerebral Cortex

Respon­sible for conscious thought, percep­tion, reasoning, and voluntary motor control. - Divided into different lobes, each with specific functions: - Frontal lobe: Involved in motor control, decisi­on-­making, and executive functions. - Temporal lobe: Respon­sible for auditory processing and memory. - Parietal lobe: Processes sensory inform­ation and spatial awareness. - Occipital lobe: Primarily handles visual proces­sing.

Basal Ganglia

Group of subcor­tical nuclei that play a crucial role in motor control and procedural learning. - Dysfun­ction can result in movement disorders like Parkin­son's disease.

Limbic System

Collection of structures that regulate emotions, motiva­tion, learning, and memory. - Key components include: - Amygdala: Respon­sible for emotional proces­sing, partic­ularly fear and aggres­sion. - Hippoc­ampus: Crucial for memory formation, especially in the consol­idation of long-term memories. - Hypoth­alamus: Regulates emotional and autonomic functions, including hunger, thirst, and circadian rhythms.

Limbic System

The limbic system is involved in the formation of emotional memories and the influence of emotional responses on decisi­on-­making.


The dience­phalon, composed of the thalamus and hypoth­alamus, regulates sensory inform­ation relay and internal bodily functions, mainta­ining homeos­tasis.


Acts as a relay station for sensory inform­ation.


Regulates the internal enviro­nment of the body, including temper­ature, salt concen­tra­tion, hormones, and more. - Maintains homeos­tasis by adjusting physio­logical condit­ions. - Controls various functions like body temper­ature, appetite, body weight, heart rate, and blood pressure. - Connects the endocrine and nervous systems by intera­cting with the pituitary gland.


The mesenc­eph­alon, located in the brainstem, contains the tectum (respo­nsible for sensory proces­sing) and tegmentum (assoc­iated with motor control and pain percep­tion).


Composed of two pairs of bumps: inferior colliculi (auditory) and superior colliculi (visua­l-m­otor). - Involved in directing the body's orient­ation toward or away from visual stimuli.


Contains the periaq­ued­uctal gray (mediates analgesic effects), substantia nigra (senso­rimotor system), and red nucleus (senso­rimotor system).


The metenc­ephalon comprises the pons (regulates autonomic functions and connects brain regions) and the cerebellum (coord­inates voluntary muscle movements and posture, with cognitive functi­ons).


Major division of the metenc­eph­alon. - Regulates various autonomic functions such as breathing and sleep.


Large, convoluted structure on the brain stem's dorsal surface. - Coordi­nates voluntary muscle movements, posture, and balance. - Also involved in cognitive functions, including decisi­on-­making and language.


The myelen­cep­halon is composed of tracts for signal transm­ission between the brain and the body, while the reticular formation within it plays a role in arousal, sleep, attention, and autonomic functions.

Reticular Formation in Myelen­cep­halon

Complex network of about 100 tiny nuclei occupying the central core of the brain stem. - Contains a mixture of cell bodies and axons. - Functions as the reticular activating system, playing a role in arousal. - Involved in various functions, including sleep, attention, movement, muscle tone mainte­nance, cardiac, circul­atory, and respir­atory reflexes.

Figure 1.1



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