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Control and Coordination - Brain Cheat Sheet (DRAFT) by

Detailed explanation of the various parts of the human brain along with functions of each

This is a draft cheat sheet. It is a work in progress and is not finished yet.

Forebrain

a) Olfactory lobe - Sense of smell


b) Cerebrum - Largest part of brain (80%)
- It has two cerebral hemisp­­heres separated by a longit­­udinal cerebral fissure
- These cerebral hemisp­­heres are attached inferiorly by a nerve band Corpus Callosum
- Outer grey matter and inner medulla is white
- Cerebral Cortex has folding. These infoldings are Sulci and elevations are Guri
- Both hemisp­­heres have ventricles which are filled with Cerebr­­os­pinal fluid


Functions
I. Frontal lobe - Intell­­ig­ence, movement of facial muscles like chewing, swallo­­wing, movement of tongue and lips
II. Parietal lobe - Centre for taste; controls cutaneous (skin) senses like pain, touch, temper­­ature, pressure
III. Temporal lobe - Controls hearing
IV. Occipital lobe - Perception of sight


c) Dience­­phalon
i) Epitha­­lamus - Pineal body is attached (endocrine gland)
ii) Thalamus - Relay centre of many senses
iii) Hypoth­­alamus - Thermostat (37 degree Celsius)
- Homeos­­tasis
- Hypoth­­alamus controls secretions of Pituitary gland (endocrine gland)
- It is also the control centre for hunger, satiety, sleep, thirst, fatigue, sex, sweating, body temper­­ature and emotions

Midbrain

Crura Cerebri - Connects Hindbrain to Forebrain


Corpora Quadri­­gemina -
~ Upper 2 lobes - Sight reflexes
~ Lower 2 lobes - Auditory reflexes

Hindbrain

a) Cerebellum
- Second largest part (12.5%)
- 2 Cerebellar hemisp­­heres which are connected with the help of Vermis


Function - It maintains posture of the body during walking, riding, jumping, catching, etc. ; Co-ord­­iante muscular activity of the body


b) Pons Varolii - (Pons means bridge)
- It is Pnuemo­­taxic centre - Cut off centre of inhalation
- Connects Cerebe­­llum, Medulla and Cerebrum


c) Medulla Oblongata
- It continues behind into Spinal Cord
- Controls many involu­­ntary actions like swallo­­wing, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, saliva­­tion, perist­­alsis
- Also regulates
(i) Breathing rate - Respir­­atory centre
(ii) Heartbeat rate - Cardiac centre
(iii) Blood pressure regulation