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First Crusade Cheat Sheet by

Peninental Ordinance (1070)

‘Anyone who knows that he killed a man in the great battle must do penance for one year for each man that he killed.’
‘Anyone who wounded a man, and does not know whether he killed him or not, must do penance for forty days for each man thus struck (if he can remember the number), either contin­uously or at interv­als.’
‘Anyone who does not know the number of those he wounded or killed must, at the discretion of his bishop, do penance for one day in each week for the remainder of his life; or, if he can, let him redeem his sins by a perpetual alms, either by building or endowing a church.’
Penance: an act of satisf­action, a sort of spiritual healing (e.g. prayer, fasting, almsgi­ving, pilgri­mage).


Spiritual Crisis of 11th Century Warrior
'...burned with anxiety ... warfare seemed to contradict the Lord’s commands ...’
‘a secular military life required him to avenge the spilling of his relatives’ blood ...’
‘This incomp­ati­bility dampened the courage of the wise man...'
‘...Pope Urban granted remission ...his courage was born ...’
‘But after the call to arms in the service of Christ, the twofold reason for fighting inflamed him beyond belief.’
- Alexios I Komnenos

Council of Clermont 1095

Muslim occupation of Holy Land
Christian shrines desecrated
Eastern Christians suffered
War of liberation
Religious signif­icance of Jerusalem
‘Whosoever for devotion alone, not to gain honour or money, goes to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God can substitute this journey for all penance.
The Reponse
‘When this speech had begun to be noised abroad ... the Franks sewed crosses on their right shoulders, saying with one voice that they wished to follow the footsteps of Christ, by which they would be redeemed from the hand of Hell.’

Expedi­tions of First Crusade

Two forces:
People's (Peasa­nts') Crusade, Princes' Crusade
Leaders of Princes' Crusade:
Bohemond of Taranto, his nephew Tancred
Raymond of Saint Gilles
Godfrey of Bouillon
Baldwin of Boulogne
Duke Robert of Normandy
Count Robert of Flanders
Count Stephen of Blois
Bishop Adhémar of Le Puy, papal legate
Peasants' Crusade
15 August 1096
Official departure date set by Urban
Crusade departed in spring 1096.
Main leaders:
Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless ‘Sans Avoir’.

Consta­nti­nople to Antioch

November 1096 – May 1097:
Their arrival at Consta­nti­nople
May–June 1097:
Siege of Nicaea
1 July:
Battle of Dorylaeum
20 October 1097:
Siege of Antioch begins
October 1097 – June 1098:
Siege of Antioch
2/3rd June:
Crusaders enter Antioch (except citadel)
5 June:
Kerbogha’s army arrives outside Antioch
15 June:
Discovery of the relic of the Holy Lance
28 June:
Battle of Antioch (crusader victory)

Anti-J­ewish Violence: Rhineland 1096

Notorious leader:
Swabian, Count Emicho of Flonheim
Some local clergy attempted to defend Jewish communitie
Forced conversion
‘[The crusaders] said to one another: “Behold we travel to a distant land ... to kill and to subjugate all those kingdoms that do not believe in the Crucified. How much more so [should we kill and subjugate] the Jews, who killed and crucified him.”’

'God Wills It!'

7 June 1099:
Siege begun
15 July:
Crusaders enter city
12 August:
Battle of Ascalon (crusader victory against Egyptian force)
The First Crusade (1096–99) was regarded as a ‘mirac­ulous’ success.
‘Since the creation of the world what more miraculous undert­aking has there been (other than the mystery of the redeeming Cross) than what was achieved in our own time by the journey of our own people to Jerusa­lem?’
- Robert the Monk, 1107


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