The cross-cultural interactions provoked by the rapid movement of money, people, goods, images and ideas within nations and across borders.
Early 20th Century Boasian anthropologyists who believed that cultural characteristcs result from either internal historical dynanism or a spread of cultural attributes from other societies.
Relationships that extend beyond nation-state boundaries.
World Systems theory
The theory that capitalism has expanded on the basis of unequal exchange throughout the world create a global market and global division of labor.
The field that studies the cultural legacies of colonialism and imperialism.
The social, economic and political factors that "push" people to migrate from their homes and that "pull" them to host countries.
A spatially extended social network that spans multiple countries.
The creation and assertion of highly particular, place-based identities and communities.
Application of anthropological knowledge to the practical aspects of shaping and implementing development projects.
Anthropology of development
The field of study within anthropology concerned with understanding the cultural conditions for proper development, or the negative impacts of development projects.
The promotion of one culture over others.
Norms and values that extend across national boundaries
Persistent cultural mixing that has no predetermined direction or end-point.
An ehtnographic research strategy of following connections, associations, and putative relationships from place to place.
Homework Questions (#5 Race in Latin America)
How do the people of Haiti and the Dominican Republic see themselves, racially?
The Dominican Republic citizens are proud of their mixed races and Spanish heritages, and they actually deny having African descent because they view that Spain as their motherland. whereas the Haitians are proud of their black heritage and race. The Haitians don’t whitewash their history. They are also proud of their vodou religion.
How does the host see the races of each country?
The host saw the Dominican Republic citizens as primarily black despite the names they call themselves to dissociate their African identities with their Dominican identities.
How does each country's history influence their ideas of their own racial identity or ethnic affiliations?
In Dominican Republic, the reason why most are quick to deny their African descent because Haiti’s twenty year occupation of DR had severe impacts on the people’s national identity. Because the Haitians enacted taxes on catholic churches, this angered the people of Dominican Republic, which forced them to distinctively separate themselves from the Haitians. The people of the Dominican Republic rejected all of Haitian culture, and to some extent, even their color.
What is your opinion of the divisions (economically, socially, politically) on this small island shard by these two countries?
The Dominican Republic has the fastest growing economy in Latin America, whereas Haiti is still a very impoverished nation. I think that this economic disparity exacerbated the division between the two countries and definitely gives the Dominicans a nationalistic pride. I also think that the two countries are very different because Haiti embraced their black founders and colonizers, whereas the Dominicans whitewashed their history. This can even be found during the period of anti-Haitian politics; politicians would present themselves and the country as white as they could in order to distinguish themselves from their predominately-black neighbors. Personally, I don’t believe the white-black (superior-inferior) power dynamic was the reason for Dominican’s whitewashing, rather it was the yearning to be completely opposite from Haiti that pushed whitewashing; however, that isn’t to say the Dominicans felt they were superior to Haitians because of their European lineage. It is interesting to observe how both countries, who were from some European descent, go about expressing (or repressing) their Africanism. The Haitians practiced Vodou while the Dominicans practiced Catholicism. With this cultural observation alone, you are able to see how proud the Haitians are of their blackness because vodou is not as accepted, or validated, of a religion as Catholicism is. They disregard how other westerners may feel about vodou because they embrace their African culture, and it proves to them to be just as valid as their Catholic counterparts. Personally, I understand why their would be major divisions simply because they are two drastically different countries. I don’t agree with resorting to violence, massacres, oppressive and discriminatory behaviors simply because of nationalism.
Study Questions and Answers
Is the world getting smaller? (alluding to globalization)
In order to make sense of local cultures, you have to have an understanding of political, economic and social conditions on a broader scale.
What are the outcomes of global integrations?
There is not an equal participation of interactions that make up globalization because it requires taking power relationships and social inequality seriously.
Doesn't everyone want to be developed?
With development comes hefty issues that concern socioeconomic and cultural change.
If the world is not becoming homogenized, what is actually happening?
Globalization is a complicated matter that illustrates how people create and change their cultures through the connections with others.
How can anthropologists study global interconnections?
Multi-sited ethnography is one approach. It allows them to track the cultural themes as they express themselves in certain places and settings.
Study Questions Cont.
What is globalization?
Globalization is the disintegration of the symbolic national borders through the use of the trans-national interactions (via social media, travelling and the gaining of more cultural awareness). International influences is globalization in progress.
What technological and cultural factors have contributed to globalization?
The widespread use of social media and normalization of handheld devices has greatly contributed to a larger understanding of current events across the globe. The lack of access to this kind of technology can be detrimental to social progression because it keeps those people out of the loop. While this is seen prominently in developing countries, it can also be observed in impoverished areas in developed countries as well. Not having access to internet hinders social growth.
Under what circumstances would you trade connectivity for food?
Trading connectivity means giving up your access to stay in touch with current events and connections with international relationships for the sake of food. If you weren't able to afford this kind of access, you would have to give it up in order to be able to afford ammenties that have a higher priority.
Apply anthropological understandings of globalization to identify and assess the winners and losers of global integration.
The winners of globalization are those who gain unprecedented prosperity. The losers are those who are in the working class whose jobs have been shipped overseas or "taken" by newer immigrants.
Define cultural convergence and hybridization. Is hybridization occurring in American life? If not, why? If so, give an example and use the discussion of hybridization from the book to make your case.
Cultural convergence is the theory that two cultures will become more like eachother as their interactions increase. Hybridization is the blending of different cultures into one. **Hybridization is happening in American life, as we live in a country full of people who belong to different cultural groups. It can be seen in movies, social media.