History and Origins
James Ussher, 1648 (not an archeaologist) - The bishop that used the bible to try to determin the day the earth was created. He figured it was Oct. 23 4004BC
The bible is how history and the role of humanity was understood
Age of Discovery - Things were found that couldn't be explained. Stone tools, and fossils of animals that did not exists. Maybe Dragons.
Age of Reason - Ways of thinking were changing. Geological time and Stratigaphy were used. Uniformitarianism, same process today as in the past, and Superposition, stuff on top is young than the stuff below. Maybe not dragons.
Age of Science - Used empirical studies opposed to faith. Descartes' Empiricism, believe what you can see, touch, and measure. Galileo, Math and physics. Hobbes, Man in nature lives a nasty brutal life, while Europe exists because of laws and authority. No dragons.
Age of Exploration - New places were found that were unknown (not in the bible), and other people were discovered in these lands. Maybe sea dragons
Invented as a means to create a new orgin story after disenchantment w/ biblical history
- Interested in pre history
- Creating a global inventory of history
- Finding human origins
- Finding human nature/reason for existence
1. Antiquarians - Rich white guys that were treasure hunters. No much about science more about exploring and status
2. Scientists - Rich white guys that were interested in empirical evidence of the world. Evolution and classification became popular. Taxonomy, like with like these all have feathers
3. Anthropologists - Rich white guys with relativist views. Aligned with history and interested in particular cultures. Emphasis on a holistic approach.
4. Today - Extremely diverse, concerned with relevance, ethics, and heritage. Looking for missing links, and repatriation in important.
The study of all people, past and present, thier things and the relationship b/w them.
Biblical - god on top and different bodies and elements going down.
Unilinear - Progress, Change over time, humans went through stages such as savagery (less European), Barbarism, Civilized (more European). Closer to civilized you are the close to god you are.
Pre History does not rely on writing. time out of mind, before memory, and immemorial
Development of Archaeology Started at home to find the earliest "Europeans", and the qualities that made up "civilization"
Skulls and scientific racism
Culture - is the learned, shared ideas and behaviour passed down through generations w/in a group
Archaeologists study material culture They figure out how to use it what it meant to people.
Direct analogy- if it looks like a hammer its probably a hammer Indirect Analogy - People who live in forests use hammers to wood work the artifact was found in the forest therefore it probably is a hammer
Ethnography - study by observation, field work participating and observing, surveys, mapping, interviews
Excavation - helps get information from the past. Principle of superposition. Stuff above is younger than stuff below.
Stratigraphy - the study of how a site was constructed through time in a logical sequence.
Dig down, analyze up. Everything in one layer came from the same period (In situ or in context.
If layers are disturbed you cannot date.
Relative dating - determining the relative age in relation to each other. This just tells you that one is younger than the other, not exact dates.
Absulute dating - determines chronological age, carbon dating is most common determines ages up to 35,000 to 40,000
Artifacts - objects made or used by humans or hominins, the foundation of archaeology
Osteology - study of bones. Foundation of physical anthropology
Lithics - the analysis of stone tools. preservation bias stone doesn't decay
Chipped stone technology Start with large rock then chip away to make your tool Need hammer stone And Core material being chipped Flakes chip broken off. Lithic debitage - left overs from the chipped stone Figure out what it's made out of using comparative collection. Then figure out what it was used for.
Ceramic analysis Technology of production Start with nothing and build something opposite of lithics Look at fabric, form, and style Basket and pottery can be made in many different ways This makes it more sensitive to cultural imprinting and identity