Socialization- the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture.
Personality- A person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling.
Behaviorism- A theory that holds that behavior is not instinctive but learned. Rooted in the nurturing we receive (not from nature).
Suppressing Development- Humans raised in isolation fail to develop into humans
Feral Children - Human child who has lived isolated from human contact from a very young age, and has no (or little) experience of human care, loving or social behavior, and, crucially, of human language. (Genie Wiley)
Radically changing a person’s personality by carefully controlling the environment
Agents of Socialization
Research suggests, nothing is more likely to produce a happy, well-adjusted child than being in a loving family.
Schooling enlarges children’s social worlds to include people with backgrounds different from their own. School teaches children a wide range of knowledge and skills, and also conveys lessons that value success and competition. The school day runs on impersonal rules and a strict time schedule. Schools also socializes children into gender roles.
A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common.
Impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience.Conservative critics charge that the television and film industries are led by a liberal “cultural elite.” Another concern charges that the mass media involves too much violence.
A linear system without females and following only the male's side of the kinship system.
Not the opposite of Patrilineal, as the men still hold political and economic power, but the kinship diagram is based around the mother's lineage, and her mother and her mother. However, the men have another kinship system. The men still hold the power, but lineage is traced through the females.
On the Run
Inner City poor black men in Philadelphia
Agency- Men have little choice in their everyday activities due to their circumstances. Conflict-
African Americans were gained full civil rights in the 1960's and 70's. However there are still a large disparity in wealth in inner-city neighbourhoods. The people in these neighbourhoods are esentially prisoners in the country of the Free.
Socially transmitted, often symbolic, information that shapes human behavior and that regulates human society so that people can successfully maintain themselves and reproduce. Culture has mental, behavioral and material aspects; it is patterned and provides a model for proper behavior. (Bodley)
A society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values and perceptions – which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and which are reflected in behavior. (Haviland, p.32)
The practice of regarding one’s own cultural group as the centre of everything and scaling and relating all others with reference to it.
Etic vs. Emic
Cultural meanings derived from inside a given culture and presumed to be unique to that culture. (Inside the culture)
Cultural meanings as translated for cross cultural comparison. (Outside the culture)
Agency is the capacity of human beings to act in meaningful ways that affect their own lives and those of others. This term implies that individuals have the capacity to create, change and influence events. Feminist and Marxist theories
Cohesion and consensus are central to the proper functioning of society and culture. The idea that society could only function properly if its members experienced “solidarity,” that is, a moral duty to work for the maintenance of society.
Conflict-centred perspectives focus on social relations as being based on competing interests of groups and individuals. Society consists of criss-crossing identities, loyalties, and strains which ultimately nullify each other, resulting in harmony and integration. Feminist and Marxist theories
A diachronic approach is one that analyzes the evolution of something over time, allowing one to assess how that something changes throughout history.
A synchronic approach on the other hand, analyzes a particular something at a given, fixed point in time. It does not attempt to make deductions about the progression of events that contributed to the current state, but only analyzes the structure of that state, as it is.
Emphasize humans as part of nature Subject to natural selection in the same way as other animals. Must adapt to the conditions in their natural environment. Culture = one of the ways in which humans adjust to the environment.
Emphasize objective reality. Cultural differences exist mainly because of the ways populations exploit the resources in their environments. Cultural evolution and variation can be explained using scientific methods and analysis.
Death Without Weeping
Mothers in a Shantytown in Brazil
Agency- They can NOT control their choices and therefore have no agency. Conflict/Marxist- Nancy Scheper-Hughes has previously said that she is a Marixist, and it is clear in her writing. It is conflict because the people are put into these circumstances because of poverty. Poverty, by it's very definition, is something that is out of the hands of the people involved and due to many disparities in wealth.
Mothers, and surrounding social institutions such as the Catholic church, expect babies to die easily. Mothers concentrate their support on babies who are “fighters” and let themselves grow attached to their children only when they are reasonably sure that the offspring will survive. The article also provides an excellent illustration of what happens to kinship systems in the face of poverty and social dislocation
There is an indifference as a cultural response to high rates of infant death due to poverty and malnutrition.
Scheper-Hughes notes that political changes in Brazil since the 1980s have led to improved health for mothers and babies. Mothers have fewer babies and no longer give up on offspring who in the past would have seemed destined to die.
Organ Donors around the world
Materialism- Organs are like every other material good in some places, and organs are used as a way to make money. Conflict- There are different approaches taken in this article, and when Scheper-Hughes writes about the poor men who must sell their kidneys to survive, she takes a conflict style approach.
An idiosyncratic multi-sited research project exploring the illegal and covert activities surrounding the traffic in humans and their body parts by outlaw surgeons, kidney hunters and transplant tourists engaged in ‘back-door’ transplants in the global economy.
Leslie T. Chang
Female factory workers in China
Agency- The girls find ways to increase their agency and make the most of their lives. They do everything to gain agency in their factories.
Factory Girls demonstrates how the mass movement from rural villages to cities is remaking individual lives and transforming Chinese society, much as immigration to America’s shores remade our own country a century ago.