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Meet your master, the almighty.


Consists of Cerebrum and Dience­phalon
Inferior to the forebrain
Consists of Midbrain, Pons and Medulla Oblongata

Forebrain (Cerebrum)

Cerebrum (Foreb­rain)

Primary Somato­sensory Cortex
Processes somatic sensory inform­ation
1)Some­sthetic sensations such as touch, temper­ature and pain
2)Prop­rio­ception such as awareness of muscle tension, joint and limb position
Primary Motor Cortex
Initiates voluntary movement
Actions that require thought such as playing the piano



Inferior to forebrain, posterior to brain stem
No direct connection with muscles
Functions at uncons­cious level

Roles of Cerebellum

Receives variety of inform­ation
Inform­ation about voluntary muscle activity from motor cortex
Sensory inform­ation from propri­oce­ptors throughout body
Inform­ation from visual and equili­brium pathways
Integrate this inform­ation and elicit a coordi­nated response
Sends its coordi­nation plan to primary motor cortex
Primary motor cortex signals the muscles to elicit desired response

Cortical Control of Voluntary Movement

Pyramidal Tracts
Direct pathways from primary motor cortex to spinal cord
Cortic­ospinal tracts (Anterior & Lateral)
Control small group of muscles that contract indepe­ndently of each other
Extrap­yra­midal Tracts
Indirect connec­tions between brain and spinal cord
Includes all motor pathways outside pyramidal system
Control large group of muscle that contract together to maintain posture and balance

Cerebrum (Anterior)

Subcor­tical Nuclei
Regions of gray matter in the cerebrum
~ Includes Basal Nuclei
Masses of gray matter scattered in the cerebrum
Components : Caudate Nucleus, Putamen, Globus Pallidus
Important in modifying movements (to make sure they don't interfere with one another)

Basal Nuclei

Basal Nuclei Function

Inhibits motor function
Controls muscle activity
Receives input from:
Entire cerebral cortex and other subcor­tical nuclei like subtha­lamic nucleus of dience­pha­lic­halon and red nucleus
No direct connection with motor pathway
Sends impulses to primary motor cortex through the thalamus
Complex role in motor control
In charge of stopping, starting and monitoring movements by primary motor cortex
Partic­ularly involved in sustained, stereo­typed movements (riding a bicycle, eating)
Inhibits antago­nistic (unnec­essary) movements
Ex of antago­nistic - bicep and tricep contra­ction
This enables multit­asking

Basal Nuclei Damage

Impairment results in
Distur­bance in muscle tone and posture
Abnormally slow movements

Limbic System

Role of Limbic System

Control emotional aspect of behaviour
Involved in memory
Works with prefrontal lobes to elicit relati­onship between feelings and thoughts

Dience­phalon (Foreb­rain)


Includes 2 stuctures


Relay station for all sensory input except for smell
Relay station for emotion impulses
Relay station for motor impulses from cerebellum and basal nuclei
Gateway of cerebral cortex
Process the inform­ation before sending it to cerebral cortex to be interp­reted
Contains most of afferent neuron synapse

Nuclei of Thalamus

Nuclei of Thalamus

Ventral Poster­ola­teral Nucleus
Receives somatic sensory inform­ation (touch, pain, pressure)
Relays inform­ation to somato­sensory cortex
Ventral Lateral Nucleus
Receives motor inform­ation from basal nuclei and cerebellum
Relays inform­ation to motor cortex
Medial Geniculate Body
Sends auditory inform­ation from auditory receptors to auditory region of cerebral cortex
Lateral Geniculate Body
Sends visual inform­ation to occipital region of cerebral cortex


Inferior to thalamus, superior to brain stem
Interc­onn­ected to cerebral cortex, thalamus and other parts of brain stem

Role of Hypoth­alamus

Important in regulating homeos­tasis
Senses chemical and thermal qualities of blood
It is crucial to :
Regulate the heart rate and arterial blood pressure
Control movements and glandular secretions of stomach and intestines
Regulate respir­atory rate
Regulate water and electr­olyte balance
Control hunger and regulate body weight


Hi, your cheat sheet is really helpful as its really summarizes alot from what I've taken notes on. Just a request if you could put in the blood supply of the brain please, but other than that its excellent

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