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EIDWS - METOC Cheat Sheet by

Plunging Breaker

Occur w/ Moderate to Steep sloping Beaches

Ocean Eddies

Indepe­ndent circul­ations of cold or warm water
Generally found on either side of strong currents such as the Gulf Stream or Kuroshio
Used tactically by submarines because of the sound propag­ation differ­ences that exist inside and outside the eddie circul­ations

Four Major Ocean Sediments

Glacial Marine

Tropical Depression

An organized system of clouds and thunde­rstorms with a defined, closed surface circul­ation and maximum sustained winds of less than 34 knots


Sound Speed increases 2 feet/s­econd for every increase in depth of 100 feet
Dominant controller of speed below 1000 feet in the ocean

Wave Height

The vertical distance from the crest of a wave to the trough of the wave

Small Craft Warning

Winds Sustained at 18-33 knots
Forecasted for harbors and inland waters

Air Mass

Body of Air over a Large Area
Takes on charac­ter­istics of the Underlying Surface
Temper­ature and Moisture Charac­ter­istics are the Same

Spilling Breaker

Occur w/ Gentle Flat Beaches


The current that flows toward the shore with a rising tide

Wind Direction

Average direction from which wind is blowing

Tropical Cyclone Conditions of Readiness - TCCOR

TCCOR 5 - Destru­ctive winds are possible within 96 hours
TCCOR 4 - Destru­ctive winds are possible within 72 hours
TCCOR 3 - Destru­ctive winds are possible within 48 hours
TCCOR 2 - Destru­ctive winds are antici­pated within 24 hours
TCCOR 1 - Destru­ctive winds are occurring or antici­pated within 12 hours

3 Types of Currents

Open Ocean

Defense Meteor­olo­gical Satellite Program - DMSP

LEO, Polar Orbiting Satellites
6 satellites in orbit

Geosta­tionary Operat­ional Ent'l Satellites - GOES

24/7 Coverage over the same Geographic Region
Monitors weather systems and storms
4 GOES Satellites in Orbit

Surging Breaker

Occur w/ Very Steep Sloping Beaches and are dangerous for Landing Craft


The types are sheet, spark, and glowing ball.
Most biolum­ine­scence in the oceans is sheet-type
Spark-type displays are created by large numbers of crusta­ceans
Glowing ball displays are seen most frequently in warmer waters. Lumine­scent jellyfish cause many glowin­g-ball displays

3 Thermal Layers of the Ocean

Mixed/­Surface Layer
Deep Layer

Littoral Longshore Currents

Caused by Waves Approa­ching the Beach at an Angle
Increase Velocity with Increased Breaker Heights
Steep Beaches have stronger currents

Cold Eddy

Cold Eddies form on the south side of the Gulf Stream and maintain a counte­rcl­ockwise circul­ation

Tropical Storm

A distinct rotation must exist around the central area of low pressure and wind speeds must be between 34 and 63 knots. At this point the tropical storm is given a name.


Sound Speed increases 4 feet/s­econd for every increase in salinity of 1ppt
Effects are greatest for Ocean water in areas of high evapor­ation and high influxes of fresh water

Warm Front

Replaces Colder Air

Gale Warning

Winds Sustained at 34-47 knots
Forecasted for harbors, inland waters, ocean areas, instal­lat­ions, and air fields

Relative Humidity

Percentage of the amount of water in the air compared to how much water can actually be held based on temper­ature & pressure

the Nautical Almanac

Contains the following data tabulated at hourly intervals to a precision of 0.1 arc minute: the Greenwich hour angle and declin­ation of the Sun, Moon, and naviga­tional planets; the Greenwich hour angle of Aries; positions of the naviga­tional stars; rise and set times of the Sun and Moon for a range of latitudes

Mixed/­Surface Layer

Isothermal Temper­ature with Depth
From the ocean surface to about 1500 feet


Primary Controller of Sound Speed in the top 1000 feet of the ocean
Sound Speed increases 6 feet/s­econd for an increase in 1 degree centigrade

Ocean Fronts

Interface btwn 2 Water Masses of Different Temper­atures and Salinities

Storm Warning

Winds Sustained at 48 knots and greater
Forecasted for harbors, inland waters, ocean areas, instal­lations and airfields

3 Breaker Types


the Astron­omical Almanac

Contains precise epheme­rides of the Sun, Moon, planets, and satell­ites, data for eclipses and other astron­omical phenomena for a given year


Wind speeds must be at least 64 knots

Polar Operat­ional Ent'l Satellites - POES

A.K.A. TIROS-N Satellites
Collects Data Globally
There are 6 POES Satellites in orbit

Wind Speed

Average rate of air motion
Measured in nautical miles/hour or Knots

Cold Front

Displaces Warm Air at the Surface

Restricted Visibility

Prevailing Visibility falls below 7 Nautical Miles or 10 Statute Miles

Warm Eddy

Warm Eddies form on the north side of the Gulf Stream and drift into the colder waters of the Labrador Current mainta­ining their clockwise rotation

Sea Waves

Also known as wind waves, are waves generated by the wind in the local area

Wave Period

The time it takes for a complete wave cycle (crest to crest or trough to trough) to pass a given point

Open Ocean Currents

Major Currents like the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio

5 Major Ocean Provinces

Contin­ental Shelf
Contin­ental Slope
Contin­ental Rise
Ocean Basins
Mid-Ocean Ridges

Bathyt­her­mograph - BT

The measur­ement and recording of subsurface water temper­ature at various depths
BT data is the critical factor in determ­ining the sound velocity profile (SVP) of a particular ocean area

Thunde­rstorms - TS

Formed when cumulous clouds grow into cumulo­nimbus clouds


Describe by its rapid decrease in temper­ature with depth from the layer above it

Rip Currents

NOT Associated w/ Tides
Caused by return flow of water from the beach
Form at the end of a beach where land juts out into the water


Suspension of small water droplets or ice crystals in the air that reduces visibility at the surface


METOC data is a layer of Geospatial Intell­igence and is critical to planning and operations in the joint enviro­nment

Swell Waves

Waves that have moved away from the area in which they were formed


Transi­tions between two Air Masses


The current that flows away from the shore with a falling tide

Severe Thunde­rstorm Warning

TS are w/in 10NM or an hour away
Gusts of 50 kts or Greater = 3/4" Hail and/or Tornadoes

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Missio­n-TRMM

Joint venture btwn NASA and Japanese Nat'l Space Develo­pment Agency
Research the water cycle in the atmosphere

Nat'l Polar Orbiting Ent'l Satellite System­-NPOESS

Will Replace the POES and DMSP


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