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Feedback and Techniques Cheat Sheet by

Definition and types of feedback.

Based on Hattie and Timper­ley’s (2007) work, feedback can be defined as “infor­mation provided by an agent with respect to one’s perfor­mance or unders­tan­ding” (p. 81). However, feedback also encomp­asses the conseq­uences of perfor­mance. In teaching schemes, feedback should provide inform­ation specif­ically relating to the learning process so as to assist learners in unders­tanding what they are learning and what they have just learned.
Positive Feedback.
It is used to let the students know that they have performed correctly and increase their motivation through praise.
Negative Feedback.
It consists of the teacher repeating the student’s response with a rising intona­tion.

Another types of feedback.

It Motivates students and creates a positive atmosp­here.
It is typically done in the target language and helps to motivate students.
Advice and encour­age­ment.
Tell students what they can do to help themse­lves.
Way to measure the students’ success.

Feedback in the classroom.

Feedback Techni­ques.

1.- Ask-Te­ll-Ask:
- Ask learners for self-assessment.
- Tell them the behavi­or/­per­for­mance you observe and how it differs from what you expect.
- Ask learners what they think they could improve and what actions they can take.
2.- Sandwich:
- Praise for their strengths and areas of good performance.
- Tell them the behavi­or/­per­for­mance you observe and how it differs from what you expect.
- Praise their ability to adapt and modify and use example where they have adapted and modified behavior in the past succes­sfully.
3.- Bridge:
Connecting concepts together from past to future. Focusing on:
- Past positive behavior/performance.
- Present observed behavior/performance.
- Future behavi­or/­per­for­mance expected.


- Give the space and opport­unity to your students of expressing their needs and concerns by creating a trusting enviro­nment.
- Have scheduled feedback sessions.
- Encourage self-a­sse­ssment.
- Focus on perfor­mance that can be modified.
- Avoid statements that are judgmental and based on assump­tions.
- Be specific with whatever you want the others to improve.
- Be immediate. Productive feedback requires giving it freque­ntly.
- Be tough, not mean.
- Ask for the students’ point of view about the covered topic and start from there.
- Positive feedback can be offered in public or private. However, negative feedback can only be given in private.
- Invite students to give you feedback.

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