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Tahsili Physics (States Of Matter) Cheat Sheet by

2024 Tahsili Physics: States of Matter

Thermal Energy

Thermal Energy
total energy of molecules in a substance
thermal energy is propor­tional to the no. of molecules
Total Energy
the sum of the potential and kinetic energies
the average kinetic energy of molecules in matter
Thermal equili­brium
a state in which two substances have the same temper­ature
Transm­ission of Thermal Energy
conduction - convection - radiation
an object used to measure the heat of chemical and physcial reactions

Interm­ole­cular Forces in Fluids

Interm­ole­cular Forces
Forces between molecules
Cohesive Force
Attractive forces between molecules of the same type, such as surface tension
Surface Tension
the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist external forces
Adhesive Forces
Forces of attraction between a liquid and a solid, such as capill­arity
Applic­ations of Capill­arity
clothes absorbing water, and water moving up stems to leaves
Pascale's Principle
states that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transm­itted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container.
Applic­ation of Pascale's Principle
Hydraulic Lift
a sensor that detects temp

Specific Heat

Specific Heat
The amount of heat energy required to raise one kg of matter by 1 degree C
Transf­erred Heat Energy Formula
Q = mcΔT (c is the specific heat)
latent heat of fusion
the amount of heat energy required to melt 1 kg of a substance
latent heat of fusion formula
Q = mHf (Hf = heat of fusion)
Latent Heat Of Vapori­zation
the amount of heat energy required to evaporate 1 kg of a substance
Latent Heat Of Vapori­zation Formula
Q = mHv (Hv = heat of vapori­zation)

Buoyant Force and Liquid Pressure

Fluid's Pressure
P = ρgh (ρ = density, g = 9.8, h = height)
Archim­edes' principle
states that a body immersed in a fluid is subjected to an upward force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid
Buoyant Force
the force acting on an object opposite to gravity by a fluid in which it is submerged, opposing the weight
Buoyant Force Formula
F = ρ(fluid)Vg
applic­ations of the buoyant force
ships, submarines
a measure of an object's resistance to flow
Bernou­lli's principle
states that in horizontal fluids, the higher the velocity, the lower the pressure
applic­ations of bernou­lli's principle
spry paint, perfume atomizer
Solid Expansion
a change in the length, width, or height of a solid
same depth = same pressure


The First Law Of Thermo­dyn­amics
E = Q - W
The Second law Of Thermo­dyn­amics
the law of entropy
The measure of a system's useless thermal energy, or disorder
Entropy Formula
ΔS = Q/T
Heat Engine
a device that converts thermal energy into work
Efficiency of a Heat Engine
Eff = W/Qh or Eff = ( Qh - Qc / Qh )
Heat engine energy relations
Qh = W + Qc
density = m/V
P = F/A


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