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2024 Tahsili Physics: States of Matter
Thermal Energy
Thermal Energy 
total energy of molecules in a substance 
thermal energy is proportional to the no. of molecules 
Total Energy 
the sum of the potential and kinetic energies 
Temperature 
the average kinetic energy of molecules in matter 
Thermal equilibrium 
a state in which two substances have the same temperature 
Transmission of Thermal Energy 
conduction  convection  radiation 
Calorimeter 
an object used to measure the heat of chemical and physcial reactions 
Intermolecular Forces in Fluids
Intermolecular Forces 
Forces between molecules 
Cohesive Force 
Attractive forces between molecules of the same type, such as surface tension 
Surface Tension 
the property of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist external forces 
Adhesive Forces 
Forces of attraction between a liquid and a solid, such as capillarity 
Applications of Capillarity 
clothes absorbing water, and water moving up stems to leaves 
Pascale's Principle 
states that, in a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the walls of the container. 
Application of Pascale's Principle 
Hydraulic Lift 
thermocouple 
a sensor that detects temp 


Specific Heat
Specific Heat 
The amount of heat energy required to raise one kg of matter by 1 degree C 
Transferred Heat Energy Formula 
Q = mcΔT (c is the specific heat) 
latent heat of fusion 
the amount of heat energy required to melt 1 kg of a substance 
latent heat of fusion formula 
Q = mHf (Hf = heat of fusion) 
Latent Heat Of Vaporization 
the amount of heat energy required to evaporate 1 kg of a substance 
Latent Heat Of Vaporization Formula 
Q = mHv (Hv = heat of vaporization) 
Buoyant Force and Liquid Pressure
Fluid's Pressure 
P = ρgh (ρ = density, g = 9.8, h = height) 
Archimedes' principle 
states that a body immersed in a fluid is subjected to an upward force equal to the weight of the displaced fluid 
Buoyant Force 
the force acting on an object opposite to gravity by a fluid in which it is submerged, opposing the weight 
Buoyant Force Formula 
F = ρ(fluid)Vg 
applications of the buoyant force 
ships, submarines 
Viscosity 
a measure of an object's resistance to flow 
Bernoulli's principle 
states that in horizontal fluids, the higher the velocity, the lower the pressure 
applications of bernoulli's principle 
spry paint, perfume atomizer 
Solid Expansion 
a change in the length, width, or height of a solid 
same depth = same pressure 


Thermodynamics
The First Law Of Thermodynamics 
E = Q  W 
The Second law Of Thermodynamics 
the law of entropy 
Entropy 
The measure of a system's useless thermal energy, or disorder 
Entropy Formula 
ΔS = Q/T 
Heat Engine 
a device that converts thermal energy into work 
Efficiency of a Heat Engine 
Eff = W/Qh or Eff = ( Qh  Qc / Qh ) 
Heat engine energy relations 
Qh = W + Qc 
Density 
density = m/V 
Pressure 
P = F/A 

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