Physics and Chemistry Foundation
Has Mass; Occupies Space
Classification by States
Solid; Liquid; Gaseous
Inter-molecular Forces (Attraction & Repulsion); Shape; Volume; Matter is classified by its behaviour at the given time.
Classification by Purity
pure: Substance; impure: Mixture
Simplest substance; Chemical reactions cannot break them down further into other substances; Smallest particle: Atom
Smallest particle: Molecule; Consists of multiple Elements
Property independent of Shape, and Size
Value can be known without altering the substance.
Value cannot be determined without altering the substance.
Amount of matter in the object.
Amount of space occupied by an object.
Mass per unit volume.
Temperature & Heat
Excites the Molecules; Causes matter to Expand; Reduces its Density; Changes State of Matter.
Anything that is in motion has Kinetic Energy.
It is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules. It isn’t exactly equal to the average kinetic energy, but is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the molecules in the substance.
Kelvin, or Celsius (Centigrade), or Fahrenheit; °F = °C x 9/5 + 32; °C = °K + 273
Sum of kinetic and potential energies of all the particles in an object.
It is the energy "in transit"; Objects don’t “contain” heat, but rather transfer heat from one place to another; An object can “have” a certain amount of thermal energy, but an object cannot “have” heat.
Absolute Zero Temperature
All molecular motion ceases; Nothing could be colder than this; No heat energy remains in a substance; 0 K, or −273.15 °C, or −459.67 °F.
Normal Body Temperature
98.6 °F, or 37 °C, or 310.15 K
The heat that is absorbed (or released) without raising or reducing the temperature. Heat absorbed causes the molecular bonds to break, and thus causes the change of state of matter.
Parts of Thermometer
Glass Tube; Bulb; Kink
Substance: Mercury; Range: 35 °C to 42 °C;
Substance: Alcohol; Range: -10 °C to 110 °C;
Conduction; Convection; Radiation
Heat transfer between molecules by direct collision; From Hot to Cold.
Heat transfer by movement of masses; Density decreases with Heat.
Heat transfer when objects are not touching; Hot object emits electromagnetic waves.
Classification by heat conductivity
Good Conductors of Heat: Most Metals; Insulators: Air, Water, Wood, Plastic